Browsing by Author "Berge, Zane L."
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ItemAudiographics used in distance learning(Australian Council for Computers in Education, 1994-09) Collins, Mauri P.; Berge, Zane L.This paper presents an introduction to audiographics technology, its advantages and disadvantages and a short summary of responses to an ongoing, informal inquiry into the present uses of audiographics. ItemBarriers To Communication In Distance Education(Anadolu University, 2013-01) Berge, Zane L.To a large extent education can be thought of as a communication process among the participants. This article focuses on distance education, which has both the general communication processes that in-person education venues possess, and also communication specific to the technologies that mediate the teaching and learning taking place at a distance. There are various opportunities and barriers to effective communication. An exhaustive review of literature regarding communication barriers to distance education summarizes the technical, psychological, social, cultural, and contextual challenges leading to a significant conclusion: that as technology used for distance education improves so does both the opportunities to overcome many of the barriers to ineffective communication and the complexity of the barriers that are faced by the participants. The hierarchy of this structure is described. ItemBarriers to distance education as perceived by managers and administrators: Results of a survey(2000-01) Berge, Zane L.; Muilenburg, Lin Y.It is becoming increasingly unusual to pick up a professional training or education journal without seeing articles concerning alternatives to in-person teaching and learning. Distance education is not new, but the new technologies used for delivery in recent decades have fueled different perspectives, methods, and debates than had been the case starting a century ago. The technologies used to deliver education at a distance have changed, and have also allowed a broader range of teaching methods to be used. Still, no one believes now, if ever they did, that this is a panacea. There are many barriers to successful distance education—some are new but many have plagued distance education since it was first conceived. ItemBarriers to Distance Education: A Factor-Analytic Study(Taylor & Francis, 2009-09-24) Muilenburg, Lin; Berge, Zane L.This article reports on a large‐scale (n = 2,504), exploratory factor analysis that determined the underlying constructs that comprise barriers to distance education. The ten factors found were (1) administrative structure, (2) organizational change, (3) technical expertise, (4) social interaction and quality, (5) faculty compensation and time, (6) threat of technology, (7) legal issues, (8) evaluation/effectiveness, (9) access, and (10) student‐support services. ItemBarriers to Online Teaching in Elementary, Secondary, and Teacher Education(1999) Berge, Zane L.; Mrozowski, Susan E.A review of the literature regarding the barriers to the use of educational technology in primary and secondary education was done. An emphasis was placed on the diffusion of computers in the schools, since the focus of this study is to determine what should be expected as computer-mediated communication (CMC) is used in schools to teach in online environments. A categorical framework, similar to one used by the first author for analysis of barriers to the use of CMC in higher education, was used (Berge, 1998). The nine categories of barriers are: academic, fiscal, geographic, governance, labor-management, legal, student support, technical, and cultural. The literature review of barriers to the use of educational technology in K- 12 using this framework suggested the primary areas of concern are academic, cultural, and technical. Secondary areas of concern are labor-management and fiscal issues, with little or no mention of geographic, governance, student support, or legal aspects of diffusion of technology. To test whether the use of CMC as one important area of educational technology entering K-12 teaching and learning, a recently published four volume series of books titled, “Wired Together: Computer- Mediated Communication in K-12” was analyzed. Taken together, the seventy-two (72) chapters in these four books, mostly case studies, represent a considerable body of experience in online teaching and learning in K-12, pre and in-service teacher training. The content analysis was done 1) to determine how many different barriers to online teaching were mentioned across all the contributors, i.e., to indicate the range of the obstacles, and, 2) to determine how often each particular category of barriers was mentioned, i.e., to indicate the perceived severity of these issues. The results are quite consistent when compared to the more general review of literature regarding educational technology. ItemBarriers To Online Teaching In Post-Secondary Institutions: Can Policy Changes Fix It?(University of West Georgia, 1998-06) Berge, Zane L.Recent technological advances have increased the overall amount of information available and improved accessibility to that information, while at the same time the costs of publishing information have decreased. These general shifts throughout society are true in education and have caused students to be more demanding and more knowledgeable about alternatives for their education. Combined with demographic trends, political forces, economic factors, the need for lifelong learning, and the changing emphases in teaching and learning, there is a resurgence of interest in distance education both at traditional institutions of higher education and in organizations whose sole mission is distance education (Dede, 1990; Knott, 1992; Lewis and Romiszowski, 1996). Can higher education at "traditional" universities change to meet the new student demands and the intense competition among education providers that distance education brings? The use of computer-mediated communication in distance learning to create online classrooms has become a popular means of distance learning, both in mixed mode with face-to-face instruction or as a sole channel of education at a distance. By online teaching or online instruction for the purposes of this article, I mean those activities limited to primary delivery by computer-mediated online instruction, as opposed to delivery systems such as audio or video/TV. Additionally, I am referring to instruction in which the course interaction is conducted completely online, or significantly online (i.e., where, at the minimum,. 50% of the graded part of the course is online). ItemBlended Learning Creating The Right Delivery Systems To Solve Business Problems(i-Manager Publications, 2007-03) Knoll, Elisabeth; Berge, Zane L.This paper addresses the concept of blended learning, an approach that has been gaining popularity in recent years with the advancement of computer-mediated training solutions. It begins with an effort to define blended learning and a description of its historical context. A discussion of blended learning as a learner-centric approach follows, including a brief examination of the advantages and disadvantages of both instructor-led instruction and Web-based training in relation to the learner. The benefits and challenges of blended learning are identified, as well as the basic steps necessary for creating a blended program. Examples from corporate and military environments are included. The paper concludes with a look to the future of blended learning, whose growth and influence promises to soar in the coming years. ItemBlogs as an Instructional Medium(Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia, 2009) Kessinger, Jesse; Berge, Zane L.Blogs are becoming more popular as an instructional medium. Yet many instructors do not know how blogs can be effectively used in instruction or their benefits and limitations. Without effective guidance, many instructors may avoid using them instructionally all together or use them in an ineffective manner. It is my hope that, with some direction and guidance, instructors can utilise this exciting tool to positive effect. This paper will give instructors guidance in utilising blogs as an instructional delivery medium and clarify the strengths and limitations of the medium. While blogging has both benefits and limitations, it is clear that it is a useful instructional medium. ItemBook Reviews: Smart Company. Mark Salisbury. iLearning: How to create an innovative learning organization(Educational Technology Publications Inc., 2009-05) Berge, Zane L. ItemCan Interest in Distance Training be Sustained in Corporate Organizations?(2005-02) Berge, Zane L.; Kendrick, Adrian A.Establishment of distance training solutions in corporate organizations has increased on a large scale all around the world. This is especially true among organizations that have employees and clients scattered in various locations around the globe. The implementation of distance training is an effective tool for reducing training cost, saving time, and creating a more knowledgeable and productive workforce. Even so, implementation of distance training in corporate organizations is moving at a relatively slow pace (Lane, n.d.; Portway & Lane, n.d.). One theory is that many organizations just do not have the internal expertise to properly plan for the change in learning paradigms. Other organizations find it difficult to foster wide scale interest and now struggle to maintain their distance training program. The purpose of this article is to analyze various obstacles that stifle interest in sustaining distance training in corporate organizations. The secondary purpose is to develop some possible solutions that can be used by organizations to implement and maintain distance training programs. In this article, a distance training program is defined as an organizational process, consisting of policies and procedures specific to departments’ or divisions, functions and responsibilities (Schreiber and Berge, 1998). ItemChallenges and Strategies for Sustaining eLearning in Small Organizations(University of West Georgia, 2007-09) Leary, John; Berge, Zane L.The fact that small organizations have been slow to adopt elearning is not because of a lack of need – in fact elearning offers tremendous benefits for small organizations in the form of time savings, captured expertise, improved workflow and improved staff development – but rather because small organizations tend not to have the right components and working atmosphere in place that allow for the adoption of elearning. There are three main ingredients that will enable this to occur for even the smallest of organizations: a learning culture, a web savvy staff, and the presence of at least one good training professional. Economies of scale that often help justify elearning for larger corporations are not applicable for small organizations, therefore managers must therefore take a closer look at how elearning can solve multiple problems faced by the small, busy staff. By integrating elearning into an organization’s strategic plan, and by combining e-learning with a knowledge management system, a virtual network, education partnerships, or other tools and strategies, smaller organizations can improve office efficiency and program effectiveness on a sustained basis with elearning. ItemComputer Conferencing and online education(1993-05-20) Berge, Zane L.; Collins, MauriThis article proposes a model for viewing computer conferencing within a communications framework. It supplies an overview of how CC is similar to, and yet different from other channels of communication. The capabilities of CC such as synchronous and asynchronous communications and archiving are described. Benefits of CC, such as professional growth, information processing, independence of time and distance are discussed, as are the limitations of the media. Those features most significant to educational uses (i.e., text-based with features of face-to-face communication; promoting student-student and student-instructor interactions) are explained. ItemCreating Student Interaction within the Educational Experience: A Challenge for Online Teachers(2009-02-20) Schrum, Lynn; Berge, Zane L.The purpose of this article is to look carefully at the design and development of online courses, and identify significant issues surrounding the creation of interactivity among and between students and the instructor. With the rapidly expanding online movement, many educators are faced with teaching in this new environment and yet have had little experience to inform their practice. The article provides support for educators as they begin to create courses for an online environment. The challenges include a necessary reconceptualization of the design process, including evaluation, and a new role for educators as they begin to create courses for an online environment. The challenges include a necessary reconceptualization of the design process, including evaluation, and a new role for educators. Most importantly, each educator has to provide opportunities for student to student and student to instructor interaction. The authors identify issues, provide suggestions, and offer specific strategies to begin educators' efforts at successful use of the online educational environment. ItemDesigning Discussion Questions for Online, Adult Learning(Educational Technology Publications Inc., 2000-09) Berge, Zane L.; Muilenburg, Lin ItemDesigning Workplace Training for Generational Differences: Does It Matter?(MDPI, 2022-11-09) Berge, Zane L.There is little to no empirical evidence that designing instruction to match individual learning styles increases learning. Similarly, the same is true when people are grouped into “generations”. If generational differences exist, the size of their effect is small and does not affect the effectiveness of training. Still, educators and trainers overwhelmingly think differentiated design based on learning styles and generational differences cause students to learn more. Why? I argue that there are other outcomes to instruction besides effectiveness. If instruction matches an individual’s preferences, content and skills can often be learned more efficiently and certainly appeal more to the learner than if it does not match their preferences. It is argued that both efficiency and appeal of instruction are important outcomes for students even when effectiveness is not significantly changed by matching the instructional approach to the learner’s preferences. ItemDeveloping Staff Training in Virtual High Schools(IGI Global Disseminator of Knowledge, 2007-01) Thompson, Chris; Berge, Zane L.As virtual high schools grow in numbers across America more interest is generated in how to successfully plan and implementing them. Part of planning, implementing, and sustaining suc-cessful virtual schools includes delivering quality professional development that has a positive impact upon students’ achievement. This article focuses on three virtual schools at different stages of maturity in order to describe such a model. ItemDigital Natives vs. Digital Immigrants: Myth or Reality?(2009-02) Rikhye, Ravi; Cook, Sean; Berge, Zane L.Marc Prensky (1998; 2001a; 200b) argues that students today, digital natives as he calls them, having grown up in the Digital Age, learn differently from their predecessors, or digital immigrants as he terms them. As such, the pedagogical tools we use to educate the Natives are outdated. Intuitively it seems that Prensky is correct: few people who teach digital natives fail to note their students seem to think and learn differently. Attractive as this thesis is, there is little evidence to support the proposition. That does not mean Prensky is wrong. He is onto something, perhaps something seminal, regarding today’s pedagogies and the need to change them. But further research is required before we can conclude with any certainty that digital natives learn differently. ItemDistance Education and Corporate Training in Brazil: Regulations and Interrelationships(Athabasca University, 2008-06) Porto, Stella C. S.; Berge, Zane L.Distance education in Brazil has evolved more slowly than distance education offerings in other developing countries. This is because all aspects of Brazil’s publicly-funded educational system are excessively regulated, highly bureaucratic, and tightly centralized. Such highly centralized bureaucracy and strict control has resulted in tremendous hurdles that work to thwart the adoption, provision, and diffusion of distance education. This is not good news: Like many developing countries, Brazil is also characterized by wide gaps in wealth distribution, with 20 percent of its population functionally illiterate and living below the poverty line. Distance education, therefore, could be used to help train Brazil’s citizens. Brazil’s emerging status in the global economy, however, is generating enormous opportunities that are fueling demand for change. For example, in their quest to be competitive in the emerging global economy, Brazil’s corporate sector has addressed this challenge by establishing corporate universities to train and educate their employees; much of this corporate training and education takes place online and at a distance. The established and emerging educational opportunities provided by Brazil’s corporate sector, in turn, is fuelling the demand for the provision of distance education throughout Brazil. Indeed, most Brazilians are ready for distance education. Many Brazilian households own television sets and cellular telephones, and its expanding communication infrastructure has capacity to support distance and continuing education models. Moreover, this capacity is currently being used by Brazil’s rapidly expanding corporate university sector. In spite of Brazil’s emergence in the global marketplace and its private-sector educational success stories, Brazil’s public educational institutions have not kept pace. This is due to Brazil’s long-standing stringent regulation of its public education sector. Recent public initiatives, however, such as the Open University of Brazil, do hold promise in fueling the growth of distance education to meet the needs of its citizens, poor and rich alike. This paper analyzes the evolution of distance education in Brazil. It explores interrelationship between the nation’s corporate and publicly-funded higher-education sectors, and the influences Brazil’s highly regulated distance education practices has on the corporate environment. The paper concludes with a broad-brushed overview of ‘success stories’ of Brazil’s corporate universities. ItemDistance Education in Telemedicine and M-Health Initiatives in Therapeutic Patient Education(IGI Global Disseminator of Knowledge, 2016) Rueter, Sean; Berge, Zane L. ItemThe Economic ABCs of Educating and Training Generations X, Y, and Z(International Society for Performance Improvement, 2019-05-14) Berge, Zane L.; Berge, Mark B.Despite the lack of empirical evidence to support generational differences in workplace training, some authors, corporate trainers, and popular theorists assert that generational stereotypes based on historical events and trends in the learners’ formative years are important. This article argues that it is better to train based on learner similarities across employee ages. It argues further that it is major economic shifts in the workplace that change what is needed from educational institutions and from workplace learning and development.