Browsing by Author "Burton, Sharon P."
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ItemAdaptive Data Screening for Multi-Angle Polarimetric Aerosol and Ocean Color Remote Sensing Accelerated by Deep Learning(Frontiers, 2021-12-14) Gao, Meng; Knobelspiesse, Kirk; Franz, Bryan A.; Zhai, Peng-Wang; Martins, Vanderlei; Burton, Sharon P.; Cairns, Brian; Ferrare, Richard; Fenn, Marta A.; Hasekamp, Otto; Hu, Yongxiang; Ibrahim, Amir; Sayer, Andrew; Werdell, P. Jeremy; Xu, XiaoguangRemote sensing measurements from multi-angle polarimeters (MAPs) contain rich aerosol microphysical property information, and these sensors have been used to perform retrievals in optically complex atmosphere and ocean systems. Previous studies have concluded that, generally, five moderately separated viewing angles in each spectral band provide sufficient accuracy for aerosol property retrievals, with performance gradually saturating as angles are added above that threshold. The Hyper-Angular Rainbow Polarimeter (HARP) instruments provide high angular sampling with a total of 90–120 unique angles across four bands, a capability developed mainly for liquid cloud retrievals. In practice, not all view angles are optimal for aerosol retrievals due to impacts of clouds, sunglint, and other impediments. The many viewing angles of HARP can provide resilience to these effects, if the impacted views are screened from the dataset, as the remaining views may be sufficient for successful analysis. In this study, we discuss how the number of available viewing angles impacts aerosol and ocean color retrieval uncertainties, as applied to two versions of the HARP instrument. AirHARP is an airborne prototype that was deployed in the ACEPOL field campaign, while HARP2 is an instrument in development for the upcoming NASA Plankton, Aerosol, Cloud, ocean Ecosystem (PACE) mission. Based on synthetic data, we find that a total of 20–30 angles across all bands (i.e., five to eight viewing angles per band) are sufficient to achieve good retrieval performance. Following from this result, we develop an adaptive multi-angle polarimetric data screening (MAPDS) approach to evaluate data quality by comparing measurements with their best-fitted forward model. The FastMAPOL retrieval algorithm is used to retrieve scene geophysical values, by matching an efficient, deep learning-based, radiative transfer emulator to observations. The data screening method effectively identifies and removes viewing angles affected by thin cirrus clouds and other anomalies, improving retrieval performance. This was tested with AirHARP data, and we found agreement with the High Spectral Resolution Lidar-2 (HSRL-2) aerosol data. The data screening approach can be applied to modern satellite remote sensing missions, such as PACE, where a large amount of multi-angle, hyperspectral, polarimetric measurements will be collected. ItemIdentifying Chemical Aerosol Signatures using Optical Suborbital Observations: How much can optical properties tell us about aerosol composition?(Copernicus Publications, 2021-09-24) Kacenelenbogen, Meloë S. F.; Tan, Qian; Burton, Sharon P.; Hasekamp, Otto P.; Froyd, Karl D.; Shinozuka, Yohei; Beyersdorf, Andreas J.; Ziemba, Luke; Thornhill, Kenneth L.; Dibb, Jack E.; Shingler, Taylor; Sorooshian, Armin; Espinosa, Reed W.; Martins, Vanderlei; Jimenez, Jose L.; Campuzano-Jost, Pedro; Schwarz, Joshua P.; Johnson, Matthew S.; Redemann, Jens; Schuster, Gregory L.Improvements in air quality and Earth’s climate predictions require improvements of the aerosol speciation in chemical transport models, using observational constraints. Aerosol speciation (e.g., organic aerosols, black carbon, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, dust or sea salt) is typically determined using in situ instrumentation. Continuous, routine surface network aerosol composition measurements are not uniformly widespread over the globe. Satellites, on the other hand, can provide a maximum coverage of the horizontal and vertical atmosphere but observe aerosol optical properties (and not aerosol speciation) based on remote sensing instrumentation. Combinations of satellite-derived aerosol optical properties can inform on air mass aerosol types (AMTs e.g., clean marine, dust, polluted continental). However, these AMTs are subjectively defined, might often be misclassified and are hard to relate to the critical parameters that need to be refined in models. In this paper, we derive AMTs that are more directly related to sources and hence to speciation. They are defined, characterized, and derived using simultaneous in situ gas-phase, chemical and optical instruments on the same aircraft during the Study of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds, and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys (SEAC4RS, US, summer of 2013). First, we prescribe well-informed AMTs that display distinct aerosol chemical and optical signatures to act as a training AMT dataset. These in situ observations reduce the errors and ambiguities in the selection of the AMT training dataset. We also investigate the relative skill of various combinations of aerosol optical properties to define AMTs and how much these optical properties can capture dominant aerosol speciation. We find distinct optical signatures for biomass burning (from agricultural or wildfires), biogenic and dust-influence AMTs. Useful aerosol optical properties to characterize these signatures are the extinction angstrom exponent (EAE), the single scattering albedo, the difference of single scattering albedo in two wavelengths, the absorption coefficient, the absorption angstrom exponent (AAE), and the real part of the refractive index (RRI). We find that all four AMTs studied when prescribed using mostly airborne in situ gas measurements, can be successfully extracted from at least three combinations of airborne in situ aerosol optical properties (e.g., EAE, AAE and RRI) over the US during SEAC4RS. However, we find that the optically based classifications for BB from agricultural fires and polluted dust include a large percentage of misclassifications that limit the usefulness of results relating to those classes. The technique and results presented in this study are suitable to develop a representative, robust and diverse source-based AMT database. This database could then be used for widespread retrievals of AMTs using existing and future remote sensing suborbital instruments/networks. Ultimately, it has the potential to provide a much broader observational aerosol data set to evaluate chemical transport and air quality models than is currently available by direct in situ measurements. This study illustrates how essential it is to explore existing airborne datasets to bridge chemical and optical signatures of different AMTs, before the implementation of future spaceborne missions (e.g., the next generation of Earth Observing System (EOS) satellites addressing Aerosol, Cloud, Convection and Precipitation (ACCP) designated observables).