Browsing by Author "Shandas, Vivek"
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ItemA community-engaged approach to transdisciplinary doctoral training in urban ecosystem services(Springer Nature Switzerland AG., 2020-02-27) Chang, Heejun; Granek, Elise F.; Ervin, David; Yeakley, Alan; Dujon, Veronica; Shandas, VivekCommunity-based projects with inclusive stakeholder engagement are increasingly important to achieve robust outcomes in the science and management of ‘wicked’ urban ecosystem service challenges. We summarize lessons learned from a transdisciplinary, team-based doctoral education program that engaged students in research on such multi-stakeholder, complex problems. The key lessons are (a) problem-based projects foster active student engagement and accelerate transdisciplinary analysis, (b) problems addressing more acute interventions by public or private organizations enable learning by clearly delineating the issues and revealing the goals and perspectives of varied stakeholders, (c) successful projects that address wicked problems require that transdisciplinary teams begin from inception to robustly frame research questions with multiple lenses and choose appropriate theories and methods to implement projects, (d) regular stakeholder engagement leads to mutually meaningful project outcomes that advance scholarly frontiers for university researchers and provide relevant solutions for community partners, and (e) university administrative investment in program faculty, students, and staff and flexibility to reward innovative collaborations across disciplinary boundaries are keys to facilitate success in transdisciplinary education. Our lessons provide guidance both for addressing wicked problems through research projects in general and for formulating transdisciplinary training approaches for graduate education. ItemGrowing Cities Depend on Ecosystem Services(Solutions for a Sustainable and Desirable Future, 2011) Ervin, David; Brown, Darrell; Chang, Heejun; Dujon, Veronica; Granek, Elise; Shandas, Vivek; Yeakley, AllenMany studies have documented the growing fragility of a majority of the globe’s ecosystems. Policymakers and resource managers often frame such ecosystem challenges as primarily about protecting natural systems in rural areas. However, that conception misses a key part of the story: the rapid growth of urbanizing areas. Home to more than 50 percent of the world’s human population for the first time in modern history, urbanizing regions concentrate pressure on ecosystem services, which are necessary to sustain healthy urban living conditions and vibrant commerce. This dramatic urbanization presents both challenges and opportunities for novel ecosystem services management. A transdisciplinary framework is needed to discover innovative solutions to these wicked problems because they involve complex linkages between natural and human systems that transcend any single discipline. The framework should integrate natural and social sciences with stakeholders’ intimate knowledge of ecosystem services and urban systems. Here we describe such a framework for training scientists and managers and present four novel cases that illustrate ecosystem management solutions for urbanizing areas. ItemPortland-Vancouver ULTRA-Ex: Evaluating Relationships Between Governance and Environmental Quality in Urban Ecosystems(2015-09-25) Yeakley, J.Alan; Duncan, Sally; Bollens, Steve; Ozawa, Connie P.; Shandas, Vivek; Chang, Heejun; Dresner, Marion; Gordon, Sean N.; Harrison, John A.; Kline, Jeffrey D.; Morzillo, Anita T.; Netusil, Noelwah R.; Rollwagen-Bollens, Gretchen; Stephan, Mark; Thiers, Paul R.The Portland-Vancouver Urban Long Term Research Area (ULTRA-Ex) is a multidisciplinary project aimed at understanding the feedbacks between human and natural systems in urban settings. The ULTRA-Ex project is seeking to answer the overarching question: How do human governance and biophysical systems respond interactively to both press and pulse disturbances in urban socio-ecological systems? This presentation provides early observations and findings from the PV ULTRA-Ex project. ItemValuing ecological systems and services(F1000, 2011) Costanza, Robert; Kubiszewski, Ida; Ervin, David; Bluffstone, Randy; Boyd, James; Brown, Darrell; Chang, Heejun; Dujon, Veronica; Granek, Elise; Polasky, Stephen; Shandas, Vivek; Yeakley, J. AlanMaking trade-offs between ecological services and other contributors to human well-being is a difficult but critical process that requires valuation. This allows both better recognition of the ecological, social, and economic trade-offs and also allows us to bill those who use up or destroy ecological services and reward those that produce or enhance them. It also aids improved ecosystems policy. In this paper we clarify some of the controversies in defining the contributions to human well-being from functioning ecosystems, many of which people are not even aware of. We go on to describe the applicability of the various valuation methods that can be used in estimating the benefits of ecosystem services. Finally, we describe some recent case studies and lay out the research agenda for ecosystem services analysis, modeling, and valuation going forward. ItemWater Supply, Demand, and Quality Indicators for Assessing the Spatial Distribution of Water Resource Vulnerability in the Columbia River Basin(Taylor & Francis, 2013-03-13) Chang, Heejun; Jung, Il-Won; Strecker, Angela; Wise, Daniel; Lafrenz, Martin; Shandas, Vivek; Moradkhani, Hamid; Yeakley, Alan; Pan, Yangdong; Bean, Robert; Johnson, Gunnar; Psaris, MikeWe investigated water resource vulnerability in the US portion of the Columbia River basin (CRB) using multiple indicators representing water supply, water demand, and water quality. Based on the US county scale, spatial analysis was conducted using various biophysical and socio-economic indicators that control water vulnerability. Water supply vulnerability and water demand vulnerability exhibited a similar spatial clustering of hotspots in areas where agricultural lands and variability of precipitation were high but dam storage capacity was low. The hotspots of water quality vulnerability were clustered around the main stem of the Columbia River where major population and agricultural centres are located. This multiple equal weight indicator approach confirmed that different drivers were associated with different vulnerability maps in the sub-basins of the CRB. Water quality variables are more important than water supply and water demand variables in the Willamette River basin, whereas water supply and demand variables are more important than water quality variables in the Upper Snake and Upper Columbia River basins. This result suggests that current water resources management and practices drive much of the vulnerability within the study area. The analysis suggests the need for increased coordination of water management across multiple levels of water governance to reduce water resource vulnerability in the CRB and a potentially different weighting scheme that explicitly takes into account the input of various water stakeholders.