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ItemInvestigating Polyploidy: Using Marigold Stomates & Fingernail Polish(National Association of Biology Teachers, 2002-05) Hunter, Kimberly L.; Leone, Rebecca S.; Kohlhepp, Kimberly; Hunter, Richard B.; Biological SciencesHands-on experimentation with polyploidy is a useful approach to connect research with classroom teaching. The following activity uses marigolds to explore the effects of differing chromosome number on plant cell size. Researchers have documented a correlation between plant ploidy and guard cell size, and its correlate, density (Masterson 1994). Guard cells control opening and closing of stomates on the leaf surface. ItemMarigold Cell Size and Polyploidy(Association for Biology Laboratory Education (ABLE), 2004) Hunter, Kimberly L.; Hunter, Richard B.; Biological SciencesMost animals are diploid, having one set of chromosomes from the male and one from the female. Polyploid animals, with the exception of some frogs and fish, are usually aborted or die immediately after birth (Gardner et al., 1991). In contrast, estimates are that about 70% of flowering plants and 90% of ferns contain three or more sets of chromosomes (Masterson, 1994; Pichersky et al., 1990). Chromosomes pair at meiosis, therefore most organisms have even sets of chromosomes, such as tetraploids (4 sets), and hexaploids (6 sets). Those with odd numbers have reduced fertility (triploids for example) and often reproduce vegetatively. Many crop plants are polyploid, including coffee, cotton, potatoes, strawberries, sugar cane, tobacco, wheat and corn. Polyploidy in plants has been investigated since the 1930s to try to understand and perhaps make use of its effects (Stebbins, 1947). The grain crop triticale, for example, is a human-generated hybrid polyploid of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and rye (Secale cereale) formed by scientists containing the complete genomes of both grasses. Plant breeders induce polyploidy to attempt to increase yield, improve qualities like fruit size or vigor, and to adapt crops to particular growing conditions (Dewey, 1980; Zeven, 1980). The seedless watermelon and larger tetraploid grapes are examples. In some instances polyploidy has increased flower, seed or fruit size, increased photosynthetic or respiration rates, or increased tolerance of extreme temperatures, drought or flooding (Tal, 1980). However, there are few consistent effects, the primary one being an increase in cell size (Masterson, 1994; Bennett and Leitch, 1997). We have developed a lab (Hunter et al., 2002) based on polyploidy and cell size, to introduce middle school, high school, and college students to several important subjects in biology, including genetics (chromosomes, meiosis and mitosis, polyploidy), plant anatomy (stomata, air and water exchange, leaf structure) and cell biology (genome size and cell size). It also allows the use of simple math in data analysis and utilizes quantitative measurements rather than simple observations. The lab involves growing marigolds for about one month from seed, and measuring guard cell (surrounding the stomata) sizes and densities. A modified version of the lab was presented at the 2003 ABLE meeting in Las Vegas. ItemInter-signal interaction and uncertain information in anuran multimodal signals(2011) Taylor, Ryan; Klein, Barrett; Ryan, MichaelDisentangling the influence of multiple signal components on receivers and elucidating general processes influencing complex signal evolution are difficult tasks. In this study we test mate preferences of female squirrel treefrogs Hyla squirella and female túngara frogs Physalaemus pustulosus for similar combinations of acoustic and visual components of their multimodal courtship signals. In a two-choice playback experiment with squirrel treefrogs, the visual stimulus of a male model significantly increased the attractivness of a relatively unattractive slow call rate. A previous study demonstrated that faster call rates are more attractive to female squirrel treefrogs, and all else being equal, models of male frogs with large body stripes are more attractive. In a similar experiment with female túngara frogs, the visual stimulus of a robotic frog failed to increase the attractiveness of a relatively unattractive call. Females also showed no preference for the distinct stripe on the robot that males commonly bear on their throat. Thus, features of conspicuous signal components such as body stripes are not universally important and signal function is likely to differ even among species with similar ecologies and communication systems. Finally, we discuss the putative information content of anuran signals and suggest that the categorization of redundant versus multiple messages may not be sufficient as a general explanation for the evolution of multimodal signaling. Instead of relying on untested assumptions concerning the information content of signals, we discuss the value of initially collecting comparative empirical data sets related to receiver responses. ItemAssessing the role of commercial aquaculture in displacing mangrove forest(2013) Hamilton, Stuart E.To fill a gap in the marine science literature, I calculated the amount of mangrove deforestation in tropical estuaries that is attributable to commercial aquaculture. The eight countries analyzed were Indonesia, Brazil, India, Bangladesh, China, Thailand, Vietnam, and Ecuador. Together these countries contain approximately 36% of the world's remaining mangrove forest. One precommercial aquaculture remote sensing survey and one current remote sensing survey were undertaken in the major mangrove holding estuaries in each nation. The time period of the analysis varied by country based on the first arrival of large-scale commercial aquaculture, with the majority of initial surveys occurring in the early to mid-1970s and all the current surveys occurring post-2004. The surveys classified the land cover of 110,557 randomly located estuarine point locations and examined the land-cover change over time for each of these discreet locations. Among the largest and most representative account of global mangrove to aquaculture conversion, this study revealed that mangrove forests have lost 51.9% of their aerial extent during the analysis period. Of the mangrove loss during this period, I estimate that commercial aquaculture accounted for 28% of total mangrove loss across all nations resulting in approximately 544,000 ha of mangrove forest converted to aquaculture. There were significant differences in mangrove loss and mangrove to aquaculture conversion from nation to nation and even within nations. ItemThe role of contextual factors in understanding mathematics teacher efficacy beliefs(2013) Austin, JathanThe purpose of this article is to argue for a more nuanced view of mathematics teacher efficacy beliefs as a construct. I argue that most researchers studying teacher efficacy assert that teachers should display a strong sense of teacher efficacy, even though the ways teacher efficacy beliefs are often measured are not specific to any content area. This belief apparently is based on the assumption that a strong sense of teacher efficacy results in more effective teaching. Other explanatory variables (e.g., teachers’ content knowledge for teaching and the content to be taught) are important contextual factors affecting teacher efficacy beliefs. I argue that these too often have been neglected in the existing literature. An understanding of the effects of these contextual factors can help reveal why advocating a strong sense of teacher efficacy is too simple a prescription for improving teaching. ItemIncorporating molecular genetics into remote expedition fieldwork(2014) Bunting, Shelby; Burnett, Emily; Hunter, Richard; Field, Richard; Hunter, KimberlyConservation expedition groups that use volunteer researchers are widespread in the United Kingdom and are growing in popularity around the world. These expeditions operate in regions of high biodiversity to study and protect the endemic species of these areas. New products have now made it possible to conduct molecular analyses in the field. We tested this in a volunteer-based conservation expedition to an area of tropical montane rainforest and cloud forest in Cusuco National Park, Honduras. Specifically, we (1) tested and modified recommended protocols for use of the new molecular techniques on a wide range of plant and animal species in the field, (2) tested the ability of novice volunteers to successfully use these techniques after minimal introductory training, and (3) used the novel techniques to conduct a small-scale population genetic study of Liquidambar styraciflua L. while on expedition. We found the techniques to be effective on all plant and animal species tested, with some modification of manufacturers' protocols. We also found that novice student volunteers were able to learn the required theory and protocols for the new technology, collect reliable data, and perform basic genetic analyses in a week-long DNA field sampling course. Finally, the Liquidambar case study demonstrated that genetic analyses can be successfully completed in primitive field conditions. These findings have exciting implications for work that can be done in remote locations, often areas of the greatest conservation significance. ItemUnderstanding the roles of polyploidy and the environment on nordihydroguaiaretic acid variation in Larrea tridentata(2014) Zuravnsky, Kristin Nicole; Hunter, Kimberly; Biological SciencesNordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) is the principal compound in the resinous leaf coating of Larrea tridentata (Creosote bush), the dominant shrub of North American deserts. L. tridentata exists as three polyploid races: diploid (2X = 26), tetraploid (4X = 52), and hexaploid (6X = 78). The distributions of these ploidy levels are strongly associated with the three major deserts of the region where diploids primarily reside in the cooler, wetter Chihuahuan desert, tetraploids in the Sonoran desert, and hexaploids in the hot, dry Mojave desert. NDGA is a secondary metabolite of creosote bush that functions to protect plants from biotic and abiotic stressors such as extreme drought, harmful UV radiation, and herbivory. Here, I investigated the role of polyploidy and environmental variables on the production of NDGA by quantifying concentrations from field and greenhouse-grown polyploids. Citizen scientists were utilized to facilitate simultaneous sampling across the entire distributional range of this species, for one full year. Under natural conditions, shrubs produced significantly higher NDGA concentrations than when removed from the harsh desert environment. In field and greenhouse treatments, hexaploids exhibited higher NDGA concentrations than diploids or tetraploids.Within the diploid cytotype, I documented environmental influences on NDGA concentration based on comparisons between a field site experiencing Severe drought, a watered field site, and greenhouse-grown diploids. Principal components analysis revealed that NDGA response to environmental variables successfully predicts the current ploidy distribution of this species. These observations highlight the complexity of plant-environment-genotype interactions and suggest that evolution in production of secondary metabolites may be driven by long-term changes in environmental conditions, and potentially influence species distribution regimes. ItemUniversities and hospitals as agents of economic stability and growth in small cities: A comparative analysis(The Industrial Geographer, 2014) Parrillo, Adam J; de Socio, MarkInstitutions of higher education and health care (‘Eds and Meds’) have become increasingly recognized as stable centers of employment and important contributors to urban economic development. Existing research into the contributions of Eds and Meds on regional economies focus primarily on large research-based universities and health care facilities based in larger cities. These institutions and the cities in which they are based offer significant resources like access to global streams of financial and intellectual capital. In contrast, smaller teaching-based institutions of higher education and service-oriented health care facilities are largely overlooked, presumably because a lack of significant research monies would mean limited impacts in the regional economy. However, any cursory look at the economic base of various smaller cities and regional centers in the U.S. would indicate that the stature of non-research health care and higher education institutions are likewise growing in importance for regional economies. The purpose of this paper is to trace the rise of health care and higher education as agents of economic stability and growth, and their spatial impacts on urban land use, in two smaller regional centers, namely Green Bay, Wisconsin, and Salisbury, Maryland – two cities with different cultural and economic histories whose economic trajectories nevertheless are converging in which Eds and Meds play an increasingly prominent role. ItemTitling community land to prevent deforestation: An evaluation of a best-case program in Morona-Santiago, Ecuador(2015) Buntaine, Mark T.; Hamilton, Stuart E.; Millones, MarcoAssigning land title to collective landholders is one of the primary policies land management agencies use to avoid deforestation worldwide. Such programs are designed to improve the ability of landholders to legally exclude competing users and thereby strengthen incentives to manage forests for long-term benefits. Despite the prevalence of this hypothesis, findings about the impacts of land titling programs on deforestation are mixed. Evidence is often unreliable because programs are targeted according to factors that independently influence the conversion of forests. We evaluate a donor-funded land titling and land management program for indigenous communities implemented in Morona-Santiago, Ecuador. This program offers a close to best case scenario for a land titling program to reduce deforestation because of colonization pressure, availability of payments when titled communities maintain forests, and limited opportunities for commercial agriculture. We match plots in program areas with similar plots outside program areas on covariates that influence the conversion of forests. Based on matched comparisons, we do not find evidence that land titling or community management plans reduced forest loss in the five years following legal recognition. The results call into question land titling as a direct deforestation strategy and suggests land titling is better viewed a precursor to other programs. ItemProspective teachers' personal mathematics teacher efficacy beliefs and mathematical knowledge for teaching(2015) Austin, JathanThe purposes of this study were as follows: (1) To examine how K-8 prospective teachers’ personal mathematics teacher efficacy beliefs vary when they are measured in the context of four written mathematical teaching scenarios, and (2) To examine the extent to which K-8 prospective teachers’ personal mathematics teacher efficacy beliefs and mathematical knowledge for teaching are aligned. Forty-two prospective teachers participated in the study. Participants were first asked to respond to four written mathematical teaching scenarios that required responding, as a teacher, to student questions about fraction concepts. Prospective teachers then evaluated how effective they believed their responses would be for developing student understanding. Approximately two weeks later, participants were asked to write mathematical explanations for four written mathematical tasks that paralleled the teaching scenarios and were then asked to evaluate their own mathematical understanding of each task. Different patterns emerged based on whether prospective teachers exhibited high or low mathematical knowledge for teaching on a particular task. Additionally, reported self-evaluations of mathematical knowledge for teaching were helpful for understanding the nature of prospective teachers’ personal teacher efficacy beliefs. ItemA geospatial methodology to identify locations of concentrated runoff from agricultural fields(2015) Hancock, Gregory; Hamilton, Stuart E.; Stone, Monica; Kaste, Jim; Lovette, JohnA geospatial methodology has been developed that utilizes high resolution lidar-derived DEMs to help track runoff from agricultural fields and identify areas of potential concentrated flow through vegetated riparian areas in the Coastal Plain of Virginia. Points of concentrated flow are identified across 74 agricultural fields within the Virginia portion of the Chesapeake Bay watershed. On average, 70% of the surface area of the agricultural fields analyzed drains through less than 20 m of the field margin, and on average 81% of the field surface area drains through 1% or less of the field margin. Within the riparian buffer, locations that were predicted by the geospatial model to have high levels of concentrated flow were found to exhibit evidence of channelization. Results indicate that flow concentration and channelized flow through vegetated riparian areas may be common along the margin of agricultural fields, resulting in vegetated riparian areas that are less effective at sediment trapping than assumed. Additional results suggest that the regulations governing the location and width of vegetated riparian may not be sufficient to achieve goals for reducing sediment and nutrient runoff from nonpoint agricultural sources. Combined with the increasing availability of lidar-derived DEMs, the geospatial model presented has the potential to advance management practices aimed at reducing nonpoint source pollution leaving agricultural fields. ItemEcuador’s mangrove forest carbon stocks: A spatiotemporal analysis of living carbon holdings and their depletion since the advent of commercial aquaculture(2015) Hamilton, Stuart E.; Lovette, JohnIn this paper we estimate the living carbon lost from Ecuador’s mangrove forests since the advent of export-focused shrimp aquaculture. We use remote sensing techniques to delineate the extent of mangroves and aquaculture at approximately decadal periods since the arrival of aquaculture in each Ecuadorian estuary. We then spatiotemporally calculate the carbon values of the mangrove forests and estimate the amount of carbon lost due to direct displacement by aquaculture. Additionally, we calculate the new carbon stocks generated due to mangrove reforestation or afforestation. This research introduces time and LUCC (land use / land cover change) into the tropical forest carbon literature and examines forest carbon loss at a higher spatiotemporal resolution than in many earlier analyses. We find that 80 percent, or 7,014,517 t of the living carbon lost in Ecuadorian mangrove forests can be attributed to direct displacement of mangrove forests by shrimp aquaculture. We also find that IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) compliant carbon grids within Ecuador’s estuaries overestimate living carbon levels in estuaries where substantial LUCC has occurred. By approaching the mangrove forest carbon loss question from a LUCC perspective, these findings allow for tropical nations and other intervention agents to prioritize and target a limited set of land transitions that likely drive the majority of carbon losses. This singular cause of transition has implications for programs that attempt to offset or limit future forest carbon losses and place value on forest carbon or other forest good and services. ItemAltering growth rates and nutritional qualities of microalgal feedstock with symbiotic bacteria(2015) Kelly, Stephen M.; Holland, Mark A.; Biological SciencesThe cultivation of microalgae has many commercial purposes; it is integral in the farming of marine animals such as finfish, shrimp, and bivalves through its use as feedstock, and it has potential for use in renewable energy sources as a biofuel. Pink pigmented facultatively methylotrophic bacteria (PPFM) are known to live symbiotically on plants, feeding off of metabolic wastes and producing growth regulators and nutrients vital for plant development. These bacteria have also been isolated from algae and water samples. One strain of vitamin B12 over-producing PPFM has been previously isolated by our lab, and past research has indicated that co-culturing microalgae with PPFM can increase algal growth rates. Our research investigated the possibility of altering the growth rates and nutritional qualities of microalgae through the use of PPFM by conducting algae growth experiments and nutritional analysis. Microalgal species commonly used as feedstock for industrial bivalve aquaculture were supplemented with vitamin B12 over-producing PPFM. A significant difference in growth between PPFM supplemented and non-supplemented algal cultures was not seen consistently, while preliminary nutritional quality testing showed an increase in amino acid and lipid content for PPFM supplemented algal cultures over non-supplemented cultures. ItemMangrove forest cover and change in the mangrove biome(2016) Hamilton, Stuart E.TEOW. This raster dataset represents mangrove forest cover and mangrove forest change annually from 2000 – 2012 inclusive. The attribute value is m2 (stored as a 16 bit unsigned integer value) of mangrove cover for each pixel. The resolution is x = 0.000277778°, y = 0.000277778° or approximately 30m2 within the tropics. Attribute tables are provided. The definition of mangrove is all areas of the globe defined as in the mangrove biome by (Olson et al., 2001). The continuous data cover for subsequent years is derived from (Hansen et al. 2013). Each raster is ~618 GB when uncompressed and the entire database is ~9TB when uncompressed. The data is provided in ArcGIS file geodatabase format with both LZW lossless compression applied to the raw raster data and jpg compression applied to the pyramids. Database compression and compaction has also been applied. The actual geodatabase size is ~4.5GB. The reference system is WGS 1984, WKID: 4326 Authority: EPSG. These data are reported by country in the accompanying spreadsheet under the heading BIOME. Please check http://bit.ly/1lMJ9zj for updates. ItemCreation of a high spatiotemporal resolution global database of continuous mangrove forest cover for the 21st Century (CGMFC-21)(2016) Hamilton, Stuart E.; Casey, DanielAim: To provide high-resolution local, regional, national and global estimates of annual mangrove forest area from 2000 through to 2012 with the goal of driving mangrove research questions pertaining to biodiversity, carbon stocks, climate change, functionality, food security, livelihoods, fisheries support and conservation that have been impeded until now by a lack of suitable data. Location: Global, covering 99% of all mangrove forests. Methods:We synthesized the Global Forest Change database, the Terrestrial Ecosystems of the World database and the Mangrove Forests of the World database to extract mangrove forest cover at high spatial and temporal resolutions. We then used the new database to monitor mangrove cover at the global, national and protected area scales. Results:Countries showing relatively high amounts of mangrove loss include Myanmar, Malaysia, Cambodia, Indonesia and Guatemala. Indonesia remains by far the largest mangrove-holding nation, containing between 26% and 29% of the global mangrove inventory with a deforestation rate of between 0.26% and 0.66% per year. We have made our new database, CGMFC-21, freely available. Main conclusions: Global mangrove deforestation continues but at a much reduced rate of between 0.16% and 0.39% per year. Southeast Asia is a region of concern with mangrove deforestation rates between 3.58% and 8.08%, this in a region containing half of the entire global mangrove forest inventory. The global mangrove deforestation pattern from 2000 to 2012 is one of decreasing rates of deforestation, with many nations essentially stable, with the exception of the largest mangrove-holding region of Southeast Asia. We provide a standardized spatial dataset that monitors mangrove deforestation globally at high spatio-temporal resolutions. These data can be used to drive the mangrove research agenda, particularly as it pertains to monitoring of mangrove carbon stocks and the establishment of baseline local mangrove forest inventories required for payment for ecosystem service initiatives. ItemMangrove forest cover and loss since 2000 in areas with year 2000 mangrove forest(2016) Hamilton, Stuart E.; Casey, D.MFW. This raster dataset represents mangrove forest cover and mangrove forest change annually from 2000 – 2012 inclusive. The attribute value is m2 (stored as a 16 bit unsigned integer value) of mangrove cover for each pixel. The resolution is x = 0.000277778°, y = 0.000277778° or approximately 30m2 within the tropics. Attribute tables are provided. The definition of mangrove is all areas of the globe defined as year 2000 mangrove (Giri et al., 2011). The continuous data cover for subsequent years is derived from (Hansen et al. 2013). Each raster is ~618 GB when uncompressed and the entire database is ~9TB when uncompressed. The data is provided in ArcGIS file geodatabase format with both LZW lossless compression applied to the raw raster data and jpg compression applied to the pyramids. Database compression and compaction has also been applied. The actual geodatabase size is ~4.5GB. The reference system is WGS 1984, WKID: 4326 Authority: EPSG. These data are reported by country in the accompanying spreadsheet under the heading MFW. Please check http://bit.ly/1lMJ9zj for updates. Giri C, et al. (2011) Status and Distribution of Mangrove Forests of the World Using Earth Observation Satellite Data. Global Ecology and Biogeography 20(1):154-159. Hansen MC, et al. (2013) High-Resolution Global Maps of 21st-Century Forest Cover Change. Science 342(6160):850-853. ItemMonitoring of dung beetle (Scarabaeidae and Geotrupidae) activity along Maryland's Coastal Plain(Eagle Hill Institute, 2018-03) Simons, Patrick; Molina, Michael; Hagadorn, Mallory; Price, Dana; Biological SciencesOur understanding of how human activities impact insect communities is limited. Dung beetles, well known for the ecosystem services they provide, are faced with many conservation threats, particularly from deforestation and agriculture. Here we used 200-m transects and human-dung—baited pitfall traps to examine dung beetle populations in 7 forests of Maryland's Coastal Plain. We set traps once a month, from May 2014 to April 2015, to determine species presence, abundance, range, and seasonality. We collected 6463 individuals representing 22 species; Janes Island State Park (JISP) had the highest abundance (2705 individuals) and Martinak State Park (MSP) had the highest species richness (19 species). During summer 2015, we examined the succession of dung beetles attracted to bait in JISP and MSP. We set 10 traps once a month (May–August) in each site and collected beetles on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, and 21 without dung replacement. In JISP, Onthophagus hecate (Scooped Scarab) was abundant throughout each 21-d period, and accounted for 68% of all beetles collected. In MSP, most specimens were collected by day 5. Here we provide information for conservation of locally rare or uncommon species. ItemSpatial patterns of primate electrocutions in Diani, Kenya(Springer, 2018-06-26) Katsis, Lydia; Cunneyworth, Pamela M. K.; Turner, Katy ME; Presotto, Andrea; Geography and GeosciencesElectrocution from power lines threatens many primate species, yet knowledge of effective evidence-based mitigation strategies is limited. Mitigation planning requires an understanding of the spatial distribution of electrocutions to prioritize high-risk areas. In Diani, a coastal Kenyan town, electrocution is an important cause of death for five primate species. In this study we aim to describe the spatial patterns of electrocutions and electric shock incidents (collectively referred to as 'electrocutions' hereafter) and identify electrocution hotspots to guide an effective primate- conservation approach in Diani. Colobus Conservation, a not for profit organization, has recorded electrocutions and annual primate census data since 1998. We georeferenced 329 electrocution data points and analyzed them using QGIS. We identified and compared hotspots across species, seasons and time using kernel density estimation and Getis-Ord-Gi*. We employed spatial regression models to test whether primate population density and power line density predicted the location of electrocution hotspots. Electrocutions occurred in hotspots that showed little variation in location between species and seasons. The limited variation in hotspot location over time likely occurred due to new building development in Diani and variability in primate detection rates by community members. Primate density and power line density were significant predictors of electrocution density for Angolan black and white colobus (Colobus angolensis palliatus) and Sykes monkeys (Cercopithecus mitis albogularis), but the relationship was weak suggesting the presence of additional risk factors. This study provides a framework for systematic spatial prioritization of power lines that can be used to reduce primate electrocutions in Diani, and can be adopted in other areas of the world where primates are at risk from electrocution. ItemHabitual Route Analysis Method (HRAM)(Open Source Software, 2018-12-20) Curry, Caitlin; Presotto, Andrea; Geography and Geosciences; Master of Science in Geographic Information Systems ManagementThe Habitual Route Analysis Method (HRAM) tool automates the analysis method to evaluate the existence of habitual routes present within navigational data. A habitual route is based on the animal uses of repeated routes and route segments. The constantly repetition of segments comprising the habitual route an animal use during a period of time. HRAM identifies repeated route and route segments. It uses the daily travel vector to identify route repetitions. A route is the sequence of geographic coordinates by day. Thus, the input data is a line shapefile. The script begins by accepting daily routes organized by month. These daily routes are combined to create monthly routes. The tool isolates each daily route and converts it into a buffered zone based on the species’ sight range. Each daily route’s buffer is compared to the other monthly routes. When a route from another month intersects a daily route’s buffer, it is considered repeated. For example, if you are looking at April 1st’s route and May 2nd, July 31st, and January 4th are intersecting the buffer then April 1st is repeated three times. The tool outputs two shapefiles for every month, one file with the month name, for example “april” which is the daily route and the attribute table shows how many times each daily routes was repeated. Another output is a shapefile for each month, which carry the name of the month plus segments. For example, for April the shapefile would be called “april_segments” which produces a attribute table with shows two fields: DAYNUM is the day the route was used and the REPEATED the day that route was repeated or the name of the route in the month which was buffered along with the name of each route that intersects its buffer. Sight Range This sight range is user input within the code since it varies based on the species and their environment. The unit of measurement is based on the input shapefile’s projection unit. For instance, if the inputted data is projected using NAD83(CSRS) / UTM zone 20N then the unit of measurement will be in meters. If the user inputs “300”, it will be used as “300 meters” for the sight range. ItemSpatial mapping shows that some African elephants use cognitive maps to navigate the core but not the periphery of their home ranges(2019-01-21) Presotto, AndreaThese files are datasets for an article published in the journal Animal Cognition (Presotto, A., Fayrer-Hosken, R., Curry, C. et al. Spatial mapping shows that some African elephants use cognitive maps to navigate the core but not the periphery of their home ranges. Anim Cogn 22, 251–263 (2019) doi:10.1007/s10071-019-01242-9): Strategies of navigation have been shown to play a critical role when animals revisit resource sites across large home ranges. The habitual route system appears to be a sufficient strategy for animals to navigate while avoiding the cognitive cost of traveling using the Euclidean map. We hypothesize that wild elephants travel more frequently using habitual routes to revisit resource sites as opposed to using the Euclidean map. To identify the elephants’ habitual routes, we created a python script, which accounted for frequently used route segments that constituted the habitual routes. Results showed elephant navigation flexibility traveling at Kruger National Park landscape. Elephants shift strategies of navigation depend on the familiarity of their surroundings. In the core area of their home range, elephants traveled using the Euclidean map, but intraindividual differences showed that elephants were then converted to habitual routes when navigating within the less familiar periphery of their home range. These findings are analogous to the recent experimental results found in smaller mammals that showed that rats encode locations according to their familiarity with their surroundings. In addition, as recently observed in monkeys, intersections of habitual routes are important locations used by elephants when making navigation decisions. We found a strong association between intersections and new segment usage by elephants when they revisit resource sites, suggesting that intersection choice may contribute to the spatial representations elephants use when repeatedly revisiting resource sites.