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- ItemRegulation of Mitochondrial Biogenesis: Enzymatic Changes in Cytochrome-deficient Yeast Mutants Requiring Delta-Aminolevulinic Acid(The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 1975-12-10) Woods, Robin A.; Sanders, Hildagarde K.; Briquet, Michel; Foury, Françoise; Drysdale, Beth-Ellen; Mattoon, James R.; Beverly K. Fine School of the SciencesYeast cells almost completely deficient in all cytochromes were obtained by introducing two defective nuclear genes, cyd1 and cyc4, into the same haploid strain. The action of the two mutant genes is synergistic, since either gene acting singly results in only partial cytochrome deficiency. Normal synthesis of all cytochromes can be restored in the double mutant by adding delta-aminolevulinic acid to the growth medium. The optimum concentration of delta-aminolevulinate for restoration of cytochrome synthesis is about 40 muM; when higher concentrations are used, synthesis of cytochromes is partially suppressed, particularly that of cytochrome a.a3. Growth yield of the double mutant is stimulated by ergosterol and Tween 80, a source of unsaturated fatty acid. Methionine stimulates further. None of these nutrients is required for growth when sufficient delta-aminolevulinic acid is present in the growth medium. With respect to nutritional responses, the single-gene, cytochrome-deficient mutant, ole3, behaves like the double mutant. The frequency of the p-mutation in the double mutant grown in the absence of ergosterol, Tween 80, and delta-aminolevulinic acid is at least 15%. The frequency can be reduced to less than 1% by either delta-aminolevulinic acid or Tween 80. Ergosterol alone does not decrease the p- frequency. The ole3 mutant does not exhibit increased p-frequency under similar conditions of unsaturated fatty acid deficiency.
- ItemCo-Localization to Chromosome Bands 99E1-3 of the Drosophila melanogaster Myosin Light Chain-2 Gene and a Haplo-Insufficient Locus That Affects Flight Behavior(Genetics, 1989-05) Warmke, Jeffrey W.; Kreuz, Andrew J.; Falkenthal, Scott; Beverly K. Fine School of the SciencesUsing overlapping synthetic deficiencies, we find that a haplo-insufficient locus affecting flight behavior and the myosin light chain-2 gene co-map to the Drosophila melanogaster polytene chromosome interval 99D9-E1 to 99E2-3. From screening over 9000 EMS-treated chromosomes, we obtained alleles of two complementation groups that map to this same interval. One of these complementation groups lfm(3)99Eb, exhibits dominant flightless behavior; thus, flightless behavior of the deficiency is in all likelihood due to hemizygosity of this single locus. Rescue of flightless behavior by a duplication indicates that the single allele, E38, of the Ifm(3)99Eb complementation group is a hypomorph. Based upon its map position and a reduction in concentration of myosin light chain-2 mRNA in heterozygotes, we propose that Ifm(3)Eb(E38) is a mutant allele of the myosin light chain-2 gene. Our genetic analysis also resulted in the identification of four dominant flightless alleles of an unlinked locus, l(3)nc99Eb, that exhibits dominant lethal synergism with Ifm(3)99Eb.
- ItemMeasurement of Oxygen Concentrations in the Intact Beating Heart Using Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: A Technique for Measuring Oxygen Concentrations in Situ(Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes, 1991-12) Zweier, Jay L.; Thompson-Gorman, Susan; Kuppusamy, Periannan; Beverly K. Fine School of the SciencesElectron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy can be applied to measure oxygen concentrations in cells and tissues. Oxygen is paramagnetic, and thus it interacts with a free radical label resulting in a broadening of the observed linewidth. Recently we have developed instrumentation in order to enable the performance of EPR spectroscopy and EPR oximetry in the intact beating heart. This spectrometer consists of 1–2-GHz microwave bridge with the source locked to the resonant frequency of a specially designed lumped circuit resonator. This technique is applied to measure the kinetics of the uptake and clearance of different free radical labels. It is demonstrated that this technique can be used to noninvasively measure tissue oxygen concentration. In addition, rapid scan EPR measurements can be performed enabling gated millisecond measurements of oxygen concentrations to be performed over the cardiac cycle. Thus, low-frequency EPR spectroscopy offers great promise in the study of tissue oxygen concentrations and the role of oxygen in metabolic control.
- ItemDetermination of the Mechanism of Free Radical in Human Aortic Endothelial Cells Exposed to Anoxia and Reoxygenation(The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 1994-09-30) Zweier, Jay L.; Broderick, Raymond; Kuppusamy, Periannan; Thompson-Gorman, Susan; Lutty, Gerard A.; Beverly K. Fine School of the SciencesEndothelial cell-derived oxygen free radicals are important mediators of postischemic injury; however, the mechanisms that trigger this radical generation are not known, and it is not known if this process can occur in human cells and tissues. The enzyme xanthine oxidase can be an important source of radical generation; however, it has been reported that this enzyme may not be present in human endothelium. To determine the presence and mechanisms of radical generation in human vascular endothelial cells subjected to anoxia and reoxygenation, electron paramagnetic resonance measurements were performed on cultured human aortic endothelial cells using the spin trap 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO). These measurements were correlated with cellular injury, xanthine oxidase activity, and alterations in cellular nucleotides. Upon reoxygenation after 60 min of anoxia, large DMPO-OH (aN = aH = 14.9 G) and smaller DMPO-R (aN = 15.8 G, aH = 22.8 G) signals were seen. Superoxide dismutase totally quenched this radical generation. The ferric iron chelator deferoxamine prevented cell death and totally quenched the DMPO-R signal with a 40% decrease in the DMPO-OH signal. Xanthine oxidase was shown to be present in these cells and to be the primary source of free radicals. While the concentration of this enzyme did not change after anoxia, the concentration of its substrate, hypoxanthine, markedly increased, resulting in increased free radical generation upon reoxygenation. Thus, reoxygenated human vascular endothelial cells generate superoxide free radicals, which further react with iron to form the reactive hydroxyl radical, which in turn causes cell death. Xanthine oxidase was the primary source of radical generation with this process triggered by the breakdown of ATP to the substrate hypoxanthine during anoxia.
- ItemDistinguishing Lies from Jokes: Theory of Mind Deficits and Discourse Interpretation in Right Hemisphere Brain-Damaged Patients(Brain and Language,, 1998-03) Winner, Ellen; Brownell, Hiram; Happé, Francesca; Blum, Ari; Pincus, DonnaRight-hemisphere brain damaged (RHD) patients and a normal control group were tested for their ability to infer first- and second-order mental states and to understand the communicative intentions underlying ironic jokes and lies. Subjects listened to stories involving a character who had either a true or a false belief about another character's knowledge. Stories ended either with an ironic joke or a lie by this character. In the joke stories, the speaker knew that the listener knew the truth (a true second-order belief) and did not expect the listener to believe what was said; in the lie stories, the speaker did not know that the listener actually knew the truth (a false second-order belief) and thus did expect the listener to believe what was said. RHD patients performed significantly worse than control subjects on one of two measures of second-order belief, which suggests that the ability to make second-order mental state attributions is fragile and unreliable following right-hemisphere damage. RHD patients in addition performed worse than controls when asked to distinguish lies from jokes, confirming their known difficulties with discourse interpretation. For both groups, the ability to distinguish lies from jokes was strongly correlated with two measures of the ability to attribute correctly second-order beliefs. These results suggest that the fragility of RHD patients' understanding of second-order mental states underlies a portion of their difficulties in discourse comprehension, but that the underlying impairment is not restricted to right hemisphere dysfunction.
- ItemThe FixK2 protein is involved in regulation of symbiotic hydrogenase expression in Bradyrhizobium japonicum(Journal Of Bacteriology, 1998-06) Durmowicz, Meredith C.; Maier, Robert J.; Beverly K. Fine School of the SciencesThe roles of the nitrogen fixation regulatory proteins NifA, FixK1, and FixK2 in the symbiotic regulation of hydrogenase structural gene expression in Bradyrhizobium japonicum have been investigated. Bacteroids from FixJ and FixK2 mutants have little or no hydrogenase activity, and extracts from these mutant bacteroids contain no hydrogenase protein. Bacteroids from a FixK1 mutant exhibit wild-type levels of hydrogenase activity. In beta-galactosidase transcriptional assays with NifA and FixK2 expression plasmids, the FixK2 protein induces transcription from the hup promoter to levels similar to those induced by HoxA, the transcriptional activator of free-living hydrogenase expression. The NifA protein does not activate transcription at the hydrogenase promoter. Therefore, FixK2 is involved in the transcriptional activation of symbiotic hydrogenase expression. By using beta-galactosidase transcriptional fusion constructs containing successive truncations of the hup promoter, the region of the hup promoter required for regulation by FixK2 was determined to be between 29 and 44 bp upstream of the transcription start site.
- ItemReligious Beliefs and Therapeutic Orientations of Clinical and Counseling Psychologists(Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 1998-06-01) Bilgrave, Dyer P.; Deluty, Robert H.; School of Humanities and Social Sciences; PsychologyA 65-item questionnaire was used to examine the relations among religious beliefs and psychotherapeutic orientations in a national sample of 237 clinical and counseling psychologists. Sixty-six percent of these psychologists believed in the transcendent; 72% asserted that their religious beliefs influenced their practice of psychotherapy, and 66% claimed that their practice of therapy influenced their religious beliefs. Psychologists who affirmed Christian beliefs tended to endorse the cognitive-behavioral orientation, and those who affirmed Eastern and mystical beliefs tended to endorse humanistic and existential orientations. These findings suggest (a) that most psychologists synthesize personal Weltanschauungen composed of elements derived from both their study of psychology and their exposure to religion and (b) that these syntheses are not random, that specific religious beliefs are differentially associated with specific psychotherapeutic orientations.
- ItemReligious Beliefs and Political Ideologies as Predictors of Psychotherapeutic Orientations of Clinical and Counseling Psychologists(Psychotherapy, 2002) Bilgrave, Dyer P.; Deluty, Robert H.; School of Humanities and Social Sciences; PsychologyExamined the relations among religious beliefs, political ideologies, and psychotherapeutic orientations in 233 34-98 yr old clinical and counseling psychologists. A majority of the respondents affirmed having religious or spiritual beliefs and claimed that their religious beliefs influenced their practice of therapy. Most respondents labeled themselves as politically liberal, and almost half claimed that their political ideologies influenced their practice. The humanistic therapeutic orientation was positively related to Eastern and mystical beliefs, atheistic and agnostic beliefs, and political liberalism; the cognitive-behavioral orientation was positively related to conservative Christian beliefs; and the psychodynamic orientation was negatively related to Eastern and mystical beliefs and positively related to political liberalism. These findings are discussed in the contexts of the scientist practitioner model and postmodern, constructivist thought. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
- ItemEffects of Behavioral Interventions on Disruptive Behavior and Affect in Demented Nursing Home Residents(Nursing Research, 2002-07) Beck, Cornelia K.; Vogelpohl, Theresa S.; Rasin, Joyce H.; Uriri, Johannah Topps; O’Sullivan, Patricia; Walls, Robert; Phillips, Regina; Baldwin, Beverly; Sandra R. Berman School of Nursing and Health Professions; NursingBACKGROUND: Disruptive behaviors are prevalent in nursing home residents with dementia and often have negative consequences for the resident, caregiver, and others in the environment. Behavioral interventions might ameliorate them and have a positive effect on residents' mood (affect). OBJECTIVES: This study tested two interventions-an activities of daily living and a psychosocial activity intervention-and a combination of the two to determine their efficacy in reducing disruptive behaviors and improving affect in nursing home residents with dementia. METHODS: The study had three treatment groups (activities of daily living, psychosocial activity, and a combination) and two control groups (placebo and no intervention). Nursing assistants hired specifically for this study enacted the interventions under the direction of a master's prepared gerontological clinical nurse specialist. Nursing assistants employed at the nursing homes recorded the occurrence of disruptive behaviors. Raters analyzed videotapes filmed during the study to determine the interventions' influence on affect. RESULTS: Findings indicated significantly more positive affect but not reduced disruptive behaviors in treatment groups compared to control groups. CONCLUSIONS: The treatments did not specifically address the factors that may have been triggering disruptive behaviors. Interventions much more precisely designed than those employed in this study require development to quell disruptive behaviors. Nontargeted interventions might increase positive affect. Treatments that produce even a brief improvement in affect indicate improved quality of mental health as mandated by federal law.
- ItemStanislavski’s Acting Method and Control Theory: Commonalities across Time, Place, and Field(Social Behavior & Personality: An International Journal, 2004-01-06) Bilgrave, Dyer P.; Deluty, Robert H.; School of Humanities and Social Sciences; PsychologyConstantin Stanislavski revolutionized 20th century theater by developing a highly articulated and practical system of acting, now referred to simply as 'the method.' Stanislavski's method presents a model of human behavior and motivation that is strikingly similar to the 'control theory' of psychologists Charles Carver and Michael Scheier. These similarities are in the areas of (a) the regulation of behavior by goals, (b) the process of goal formation, (c) the hierarchical organization of behavior, (d) the disruption of goals by obstacles, (e) outcome expectancies, (f) the sequencing of behavior into units, and (g) the formation of identity. These commonalities provide something akin to 'construct validity' for the basic assertions of each model.
- ItemInstructors' Self-Perceived Pedagogical Principle Implementation in the Online Environment.(Quarterly Review of Distance Education., 2006) Zhang, Jinsong; Walls, Richard T.; Stevenson University OnlineThis study explored online instructors' perceptions of their implementation of Chickering and Gamson's Seven Principles and the factors that influenced instructors' implementations. Results reveal that endorsement of the seven principles by online instructors varied significantly from one principle to another. The least-endorsed of the principles was encourage cooperation among students, and the most endorsed was communicate high expectations. Instructional strategies and technology features positively influenced implementations of the Seven Principles, while time and distance negatively influenced the implementations. Significantly more implementation of the encourage active learning principle occurred for participants teaching courses in humanities than for those teaching science and technology. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
- ItemToward Building a Database of Bifunctional Probes for the MS3D Investigation of Nucleic Acids Structures(Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry, 2006-11) Zhang, Qingrong; Yu, Eizadora T.; Kellersberger, Katherine A.; Crosland, Elizabeth; Fabris, Daniele; EmeritusThis report illustrates the approaches employed to investigate critical aspects of the activity of crosslinking reagents toward nucleic acid substrates, which should be evaluated to identify candidate probes for mass spectrometric 3D (MS3D) investigations of biomolecules and macromolecular complexes. Representative members of different classes of bifunctional reagents were taken into consideration, including bikethoxal and phenyl-diglyoxal [bis-(1,2-dicarbonyls)], cisplatin (coordinative binding agents), chlorambucil and nitrogen mustard [bis-(2-chloroethyl)amines], and sym-triazine trichloride (triazines). Nanospray-Fourier transform mass spectrometry (FTMS) was applied without desalting or separation procedures to characterize the covalent products obtained by probing dinucleotide and trinucleotide substrates under a variety of experimental conditions in vitro. The carefully controlled composition of these substrates enabled us to obtain valid comparisons of probe activity toward individual nucleotides and evaluate possible base-specific effects, including the stability of the different adducts in solution under the selected reaction conditions. The gas-phase behavior of the observed products was investigated using sustained off-resonance irradiation collision-induced dissociation (SORI-CID) to obtain valuable information for guiding the design of sequencing experiments and helping the data interpretation. Structured RNA substrates, such as HIV-1 stemloop 1, were finally employed to investigate the structural determinant of adduct formation and highlight the different nature of the spatial information provided by the various candidate probes.
- ItemSex, Class and History: An Experiment in Teaching Economics in an Interdisciplinary Setting(Journal of Economic Education, 2008) Freedman, Ora; Howard S. Brown School of Business and Leadership; Business AdministrationThe author reports on various aspects of teaching economics in an interdisciplinary, team-taught course, including reflections on a unique experiment in teaching economics to nonmajors. By the incorporation of selected topics of gender economics into the interdisciplinary course about the changing economic statuses of women throughout history, the students are introduced to the fundamentals of economic thinking and encouraged to become economically literate. Faced with the constraints of no prerequisites and the presence of two instructors at all classes, the author implements pedagogical models of teaching adopted from the education field to achieve a desirable level of comprehension and integration. The author outlines the course design, the challenges, and suggestions about how to improve the course
- ItemCommunication Ethics: Literacy Dialogue and Difference(Sage Publications, 2009) Arnett, Ronald C.; Fritz, Janie M. Harden; Bell, Leeanne M.; School of Design; Business CommunicationThe pragmatic necessity of communication ethics -- Defining communication ethics -- Approaches to communication ethics: the pragmatic good of theory -- Communication ethics: in the eye(s) of the theory of the beholder -- Dialogic ethics: meeting differing grounds of the "good" -- Public discourse ethics: public and private accountability -- Interpersonal communication ethics: the relationship matters -- Organizational communication ethics: community of memory and dwelling -- Intercultural communication ethics: before the conversation begins -- Business and professional communication ethics -- Health care communication ethics -- Communication ethics literacy and difference: dialogic learning.
- ItemThe Ups and Downs of Mutation Frequencies during Aging Can Account for the Apert Syndrome Paternal Age Effect(PLoS Genetics, 2009-07) Yoon, Song-Ro; Qin, Jian; Glaser, Rivka L.; Wang Jabs, Ethylin; Wexler, Nancy S.; Sokol, Rebecca; Arnheim, Norman; Calabrese, Peter; Beverly K. Fine School of the Sciences; BiologyApert syndrome is almost always caused by a spontaneous mutation of paternal origin in one of two nucleotides in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 gene (FGFR2). The incidence of this disease increases with the age of the father (paternal age effect), and this increase is greater than what would be expected based on the greater number of germ-line divisions in older men. We use a highly sensitive PCR assay to measure the frequencies of the two causal mutations in the sperm of over 300 normal donors with a wide range of ages. The mutation frequencies increase with the age of the sperm donors, and this increase is consistent with the increase in the incidence rate. In both the sperm data and the birth data, the increase is nonmonotonic. Further, after normalizing for age, the two Apert syndrome mutation frequencies are correlated within individual sperm donors. We consider a mathematical model for germ-line mutation which reproduces many of the attributes of the data. This model, with other evidence, suggests that part of the increase in both the sperm data and the birth data is due to selection for mutated premeiotic cells. It is likely that a number of other genetic diseases have similar features. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
- ItemValidity of the 12-Item French Version of the Tobacco Craving Questionnaire in Treatment-Seeking Smokers(Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 2010-05) Berlin, Ivan; Singleton, Edward G.; Heishman, Stephen J.; School of Humanities and Social Sciences; PsychologyIntroduction: The French version of the Tobacco Craving Questionnaire (FTCQ) is a valid and reliable 47-item self-report instrument that assesses tobacco craving in four factors: emotionality, expectancy, compulsivity, and purposefulness. For use in research and clinical settings, we constructed a 12-item version of the FTCQ (FTCQ-12). Method: The FTCQ-12 was administered to treatment-seeking French smokers (n = 310) enrolled in the Adjustment of DOses of NIcotine in Smoking Cessation (ADONIS) trial. We conducted confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and examined congruence in factor loadings between the FTCQ and FTCQ-12 to determine the validity and reliability of the FTCQ-12. Measures of tobacco craving, withdrawal, smoking patterns, and smoking history were included to explore the concurrent validity of the FTCQ-12. We used craving scores to distinguish participants who were highly dependent on nicotine from those less dependent on nicotine. Results: CFA indicated excellent fit for a four-factor model, with congruence coefficients indicating moderate similarity in factor patterns and loadings between the FTCQ and FTCQ-12. Individual factors of the FTCQ-12 correlated positively with smoking history and withdrawal variables. Participants who were highly dependent on nicotine were nearly six times more likely to score >5 on the General Craving Score (maximum: 7) than those less dependent on nicotine. Discussion: Findings suggest that the FTCQ-12 measures the same four factors as the FTCQ and TCQ, and these four constructs have unique properties. The FTCQ-12 yields valid and reliable indices of tobacco craving and has potential clinical utility for rapid assessment of tobacco craving in smokers seeking treatment.
- ItemBuilding a Culture of Assessment: Ode to Musun, Baker, and Fulmer(Assessment Update, 2010-07) Asbury, Jo-Ellen; Academic AffairsThe article focuses on the author's view on organizing an assessment expo in the U.S. He cites the article "Assessment Update," Jim Fulmer, Linda Musun and Aaron Baker which narrate their experience of organizing an assessment exposition. He mentions that to start an event one must secure the funding. He lists several suggestions for organizing including make a catchy title for sessions, do not get too steeped in own public relations (PR) and forum for colleagues at the other institutions.
- ItemDialogic Learning as First Principle in Communication Ethics(Atlantic Journal of Communication, 2010-07) Arnett, Ronald C.; Bell, Leeanne M.; Fritz, Janie M. Harden; School of Design; Business CommunicationThis article frames a dialogic learning theory of communication ethics based upon Buber (1955, 1958), Gadamer (1988), Freire (2000), and Arendt (1998). This communication ethics theory privileges dialogic learning as first principle, accompanied by attending and listening as one searches for temporal answers emerging among three coordinates: (a) communicative partners (self and Other), (b) communicative content, and (c) the communicative demands of the historical moment. We situate a communication ethic within a philosophical and pragmatic first principle: dialogic learning (Arnett, Fritz, & Bell, 2009), working within the tradition of Levinas (2001) that ethics is first philosophy and first principle (Bergo, 1999). [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
- ItemTheoretical Studies of An(II)(2)(C(8)H(8))(2) (An = Th, Pa, U, and Np) Complexes: The Search for Double-Stuffed Actinide Metallocenes(Inorganic Chemistry, 2010-07-19) Zhou, Jia; Sonnenberg, Jason L.; Schlegel, H. Bernhard; Beverly K. Fine School of the Sciences; ChemistryComplexes of the form An(2)(C(8)H(8))(2) (An = Th, Pa, U, and Np) were investigated using density functional theory with scalar-relativistic effective core potentials. For uranium, a coaxial isomer with D(8h) symmetry is found to be more stable than a C(s) isomer in which the dimetal unit is perpendicular to the C(8) ring axis. Similar coaxial structures are predicted for Pa(2)(C(8)H(8))(2) and Np(2)(C(8)H(8))(2), while in Th(2)(C(8)H(8))(2), the C(8)H(8) rings tilt away from the An-An axis. Going from Th(2)(C(8)H(8))(2) to Np(2)(C(8)H(8))(2), the An-An bond length decreases from 2.81 A to 2.19 A and the An-An stretching frequency increases from 249 to 354 cm(-1). This is a result of electrons populating An-An 5f pi- and delta-type bonding orbitals and varphi nonbonding orbitals, thereby increasing in An-An bond order. U(2)(C(8)H(8))(2) is stable with respect to dissociation into U(C(8)H(8)) monomers. Disproportionation of U(2)(C(8)H(8))(2) into uranocene and the U atom is endothermic but is slightly exothermic for uranocene plus (1)/(2)U(2), suggesting that it might be possible to prepare double stuffed uranocene if suitable conditions can be found to avoid disproportionation.
- ItemProton Transfer Studied Using a Combined Ab Initio Reactive Potential Energy Surface with Quantum Path Integral Methodology(Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation, 2010-08) Wong, Kim F.; Sonnenberg, Jason L.; Paesani, Francesco; Yamamoto, Takeshi; Vaníček, Jiří; Zhang, Wei; Schlegel, H. Bernhard; Case, David A.; Cheatham, Thomas E. III; Miller, William H.; Voth, Gregory A.; Beverly K. Fine School of the SciencesThe rates of intramolecular proton transfer are calculated on a full-dimensional reactive electronic potential energy surface that incorporates high-level ab initio calculations along the reaction path and by using classical transition state theory, path-integral quantum transition state theory, and the quantum instanton approach. The specific example problem studied is malonaldehyde. Estimates of the kinetic isotope effect using the latter two methods are found to be in reasonable agreement with each other. Improvements and extensions of this practical, yet chemically accurate framework for the calculations of quantized, reactive dynamics are also discussed.