Browsing by Subject "American history"
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ItemA city afire: The Baltimore City riot of 1968. Antecedents, causes and impact.(2006-06-07) Law-Womack, Medrika; Robinson, Jo Ann O.; Master of Arts ItemA historical analysis of the civil rights movement in Windsor, Bertie County, North Carolina, 1963--1968.(2011-05-18) Watson, Chelsea R.; Robinson, Jo Ann O.; Master of Arts Item"After Careful Review”: Commemoration And Activism Among Minority Students At Predominantly Whites Institutions During The Obama Administration 2009–2016(2018) Edmond, Karlens; Berliner, Brett; History and Geography; Master of ArtsThe history of African American students in higher education and their student activism is very important for understanding the predicament that these students face. Education opportunities for black students higher education has improved in American society. The racial atmosphere on college campuses can affect campus politics and research output study the racial climate involves many common issues such as freedom of speech and the right to assemble. The college atmosphere familiarizes students mature behavior adult practices and aids in their development to adulthood. Race, status, and gender affect the experiences of college students who examine their way of life through the paradigm of their identities and those of others from different backgrounds. Racial aggression against black students is not uncommon across US campuses and it has escalated beyond individual epithets and jokes. Also, it is important to understand hate crimes and bigotry incidents not only affect the student but the school’s reputation. Students from diverse backgrounds—including religion, race, ethnicity, and sexual orientation—affect the culture of an individual college’s campus. Students have protested and debated issues that affect their education and their experience as citizens and students. The visibility and coverage of student debates and protests have caused the removal of higher education administrations officials and historical statues, and resulted in bad press for the university. Student activism promoting diversity is an important aspect of millennials’ activism. The millennials’ movement evaluates the past and questions the legacy of historical figures who are associated with their respective school. This change is part of an international discourse taking place about higher education. Students calling for their removal of memorialized figure contend that the individuals being honored held unacceptable racial views. ItemAn indigenous Civil Rights Movement: Charlotte, North Carolina, 1940-1963.(2006-09-25) Griffin, Willie J.; Dibua, Jeremiah I.; Master of Arts Item"Artful, Smart, And Of A Smiling Countenance": Delaware's Enslaved Women, 1760-1820(2009) Antezana, Darlene Spitzer; Terborg-Penn, Rosalyn; History and Geography; Doctor of PhilosophyThis dissertation analyzed the lives of Delaware's enslaved women from 1760-1820. Delaware's slavery history received little scholarly attention and its enslaved women received even less. During the sixty years examined, Delaware created a body of law that separated it from the rest of slave-owning America. These laws prohibited slave owners from importing or exporting slaves in or out of the state without an act of the legislature. Enslaved women seized the opportunity to petition for freedom if they were illegally moved from or into the state, an opportunity unavailable to enslaved women elsewhere. De facto gradual emancipation separated enslaved women and children, hindering stable marital relations and family security. Delaware's small size and the nearness of free Pennsylvania encouraged enslaved women to escape; however, Delaware's enslaved women fled with large amounts of clothing, personal property, husbands or other men, and children. Some fled while pregnant. They engaged in several forms of resistance, embraced the new Methodist religion, and participated in dance and song. Delaware's enslaved women bore children when young, had large families, and were victims of nonconsenual interracial relationships. Enslaved women performed both domestic and agricultural work; gender lines were blurred or nonexistent. They endured floggings or sometimes death for perceived non-performance in assigned work.Delaware's enslaved women were human beings who persevered to maintain families and, possibly, attain freedom. Primary data include: deed and will books of Delaware's three counties, Quaker manumission records, coroner's inquests, court cases, legislative papers, and county slavery files, all in the Delaware Public Archives. Other data include runaway and sale advertisements in contemporary newspapers, slave narratives, and memoirs of white Delawareans. Analysis of the sources created a narrative of the lives of Delaware's enslaved women. ItemBaltimore's Desires: Mapping Intimacy Through Letters From Slavery To Civil Rights(2015) Cottle, Katherine Elizabeth; Nerad, Julie C.; English and Languages; Doctor of Philosophy"Baltimore's Desires: Mapping Intimacy through Letters from Slavery to Civil Rights" provides a new lens of Baltimore through the examination of preserved and unpreserved intimate letters which passed through Baltimore by prominent residential and visiting figures from the 1850's to the 1950's. Viewing intimacy through five different desires, this dissertation creates a map of Baltimore which transcends race, class, physical and mental health, sexual identity, gender, and temporal frameworks. Communicating due to a desire for freedom, Frederick Douglass, Frances Ellen Watkins Harper, and Harriet Tubman highlight the lack of preserved and intimate letters by Baltimore's early African American community. Ralph Waldo Emerson and Lidian Jackson Emerson's intimate letters, as well as those written by Mark Twain and Olivia Langdon Clemens, explore correspondence written by prominent men for the sake of communication and companionship while traveling through Baltimore. The desire for mental and physical health and wholeness drives the intimate letters of renown Baltimore couples H. L. Mencken and Sara Haardt, and F. Scott and Zelda Fitzgerald, who were physically separated due to Haardt's and Zelda Fitzgerald's health disabilities. Emily Dickinson's letters to her sister-in-law, Susan Huntington Gilbert (Dickinson) (written while Huntington taught at a girls' school in Baltimore); Eleanor Roosevelt and journalist Lorena Hickok's correspondence (written while Hickok was based in Baltimore, reporting for the Federal Emergency Relief Administration); and Dr. Esther Richard's (psychiatrist at Johns Hopkins Hospital) letters to Dr. Abby Howe Turner (professor at Mount Holyoke) expose the desire to write intimate letters to gain female intimacy. W. E. B. Du Bois and Nina Gomer Du Bois's letters sent to and from "Du Bois Cottage" on Montebello Terrace; Thurgood Marshall's missing personal correspondence with his first wife, Vivian Burey Marshall; and Clarence Mitchell, Jr.'s privately housed/unprocessed love letters to his wife, Juanita Jackson Mitchell, showcase the challenges of locating and examining private letters by public civil rights figures. By viewing and discussing a range of desires, prominent figures, and geographies within Baltimore's history, the intimate letter's vital role as a socio-political catalyst and underlying force of the human condition is undeniable, universal, and more relevant to Baltimore's current generation of residents and visitors. ItemCommercial poultry production on Maryland's Lower Eastern Shore and the involvement of African Americans, 1930s to 1990s.(2011-05-18) Omo-Osagie, Solomon Iyobosa, II; Dibua, Jeremiah I.; Doctor of Philosophy ItemDiscrimination deferred: How the Kerr V. Pratt (1945) case contributed to the end of segregation.(2011-05-18) Jackson, Damian A.; Phillips, Glenn O.; Master of Arts ItemDying to vote: The Negroes' struggle to secure the right to vote in Upcountry South Carolina 1868--1898.(2011-05-18) Smith, Rosemunde Goode; Robinson, Jo Ann O.; Master of Arts ItemEmancipated But Not Free: African Americans Under The Post-Emancipation Apprenticeship System In Frederick County, Maryland 1864-1870(2009) Gartrell, John Bryan; Phillips, Glenn O.; History and Geography; Master of ArtsAfter declaring emancipation on 1 November 1864, many of Maryland's former slaveholders petitioned their county Orphans' Courts to keep freed children bound as apprentices. The focus of this work is to uncover and analyze the social conditions of those freed persons directly affected by apprenticeships in Frederick County, Maryland, from 1864-1870. This study uses an Afrocentric and subaltern theoretical approach to analyze the 111 cases of African American apprenticeship, focusing on the lives of both children and parents from the Frederick County's Orphans' Court records. Important demographics on these children are reaped from these records, including the names, ages and the assignment of menial labor like farming and domestic duties. Some nineteen sets of siblings were apprenticed. Forty-five signified the role freed parents played in apprenticing their children and another fifty-seven children had no parent on record. All of this meant that freed children were indeed the most vulnerable people in the wake of Emancipation. They were left in the hands of a white master before freedom was fully realized. The immediate legacy of Frederick County's post-Emancipation apprenticeship system is also assessed through locating apprenticed children in 1870 US Federal Census and analyzing their social condition. Seven children were found in the household of family or kin. Their return represented the successful efforts of freed parents to protest apprenticeship through appeals in the Orphans' Court. But even with successful revocations of apprenticeships reconnecting families, forty-seven children remained in households headed by whites. The children in white households were left without family or education and continued working in the unskilled occupations designated in their apprenticeship. The overall impact of apprenticeship was the implementation of a system that allowed white owners to maintain social and economic hegemony after the demise of slavery while limiting opportunities for familial development, economic sovereignty, and social independence among this group of the first emancipated generation in Frederick County. Item"Eyes of the world": Racial discrimination against African dignitaries along Maryland Route 40 during the Kennedy Administration.(2011-05-18) Erdman, Jennifer Lynn; Robinson, Jo Ann O.; Master of Arts ItemEyewitnesses of Briggs v. Elliott school desegregation in Clarendon County, South Carolina from 1947--1960.(2011-05-18) Brunson, Patrick; Ham, Debra Newman; Master of Arts ItemFrom Humble Beginnings To A Profound Impact: A Brief History Of Lovely Lane United Methodist Church And Its Effect On The African American Community Of Baltimore, Maryland(2010) Barrett, Simone Renee; Hill, Erness A.; Fine Arts; Master of ArtsThe first Methodist Episcopal Church (ME Church) of Baltimore, Maryland was founded in 1772 by Reverend Joseph Pilmoor, an English missionary and disciple of the founder of Methodism, John Wesley. Pilmoor was sent to America from England by Wesley in 1769, to teach the Methodist faith. He landed in Philadelphia and made his way to Maryland, Virginia and North Carolina, preaching the Methodist religion. While preaching in Baltimore, he was granted use of Otterbein Chapel also known as the Old Dutch Church. The people of Baltimore responded favorably to Methodism, so that in 1774 the Lovely Lane Meeting House was constructed at Redwood and South streets. In 1784, this became the site of the Christmas Conference which organized the American ME Church. The church moved several times from the Redwood and South Streets location to Light Street (two locations), Charles and Fayette Streets and was known as First Methodist Episcopal Church. Outpost churches known as The Baltimore City Station were established divided by race. The "Colored Methodist Society" was initiated in 1785. "The Colored Methodist Society" produced two of the oldest African American Methodist Churches in the country, Sharp Street Memorial Methodist Episcopal Church (1797) and Bethel African Methodist Episcopal Church (1815). The present location of Lovely Lane United Methodist Church is at 2200 North Calvert Street. It was erected as a centennial memorial of the 1784 Christmas Conference. In 1954, it assumed the name of Lovely Lane United Methodist Church after being named First Methodist Church for a number of years. It is known as the "Mother Church" of American Methodism. The Church currently serves as a place of worship for approximately two hundred members. It is also the home of the Methodist Historical Society and houses an active museum and archive. Additionally, it has initiated several institutions of higher education which include the Centenary Biblical Institute, now known as Morgan State University (MSU), which was established in 1867. MSU was the first institution of higher education for African Americans in Baltimore, Maryland and for the first seventy-two years it was partially funded and fully managed by Lovely Lane Methodist Church. Morgan State University is still in existence today and has conferred thousand of degrees since its inception in 1867. The purpose of this thesis is to examine the role that Lovely Lane United Methodist Church had in "birthing" the African American Methodist Community of Baltimore, Maryland, and its surrounding environs. The time period examined in this thesis includes the founding of Methodism in America in 1772, the establishment of First Methodist Church (Lovely Lane) from its beginning in 1774, founding of the "Colored Methodist Society" in 1784, Sharp Street Memorial Methodist Episcopal Church in 1797, Bethel African Methodist Episcopal Church in 1816, and the Centenary Bible Institute (Morgan College)1867. ItemGovernor Robert Dinwiddie and his political struggle to defend colonial Virginia(2009) Gallagher, James R.; Perreault, Melanie; HistoryGovernor Robert Dinwiddie struggled against many internal and external forces to perform his duties in securing the colony's borders against the intrusions of France and her Native American allies. Dinwiddie found himself bombarded by internal distractions and obstructions from other colonial governors, members of Virginia's House of Burgesses, the colonial militia, beside those advances against Virginia in the Ohio River Valley. He was able to overcome these issues and govern the colony at a time when the entire frontier was ablaze with war. Robert Dinwiddie's efforts as colonial governor during the French and Indian War proved his capabilities as a leader of men, and it was due much to these efforts that Virginia survived this conflict in the manner that it did. ItemGuns, Grub, And Gasoline: How The American Supply System Helped Win World War Ii(2015) Mitchell, Matthew Hudson; Ham, Debra Newman; History and Geography; Doctor of PhilosophyAbstract Title of Dissertation: Guns, Grub, and Gasoline: How the American Supply System Helped Win World War II Matthew Hudson Mitchell, Morgan State University, PhD, History, December 2015 Dissertation Chaired by: Debra N. Ham, PhD Department of History Over generations of warfare, logistics have remained the lifeblood of great military campaigns. In spite of the U.S.A having a relatively little experience in mechanized warfare, the United States military forces used overwhelming logistical strength to help defeat the Axis powers in World War II. This study will trace the logistical development of the United States Army from the Revolutionary War to its World War II deployment. The vital issues of investigation include military, quantitative, political, economic, and social interaction of personnel through a nationalist theoretical approach in order to interpret the impact of the U.S. Logistical Services between 1941-1945. The primary and secondary source materials includes specific military reports and letters. One component from the Quartermaster Corps Museum in Fort Lee, Virginia, that will be critical to this study will be the use of eyewitness testimony from officers of the United States Quartermaster Corps. It will also include the views of policy makers who worked closely with the Quartermaster Corps, found at the U.S. Army War College, and the special collections of libraries such as West Point. The interviews conducted by the Library of Congress Veterans History Project will also make up a significant portion of the primary source material for this study. Other primary sources for this study will be period newspapers and periodicals focusing on logistics, such as Stars and Stripes which can be found at several academic libraries. It is the contention of this study that the Quartermaster Corps was the most vital branch of the United States Armed Services during World War II. The coordinated efforts of mechanized units paved the way for an Allied victory. It was only through the efforts of mechanized units that the Quartermaster Corps was able to conquer the unique geographic challenges of the North Africa, Sicily, Italy, France and Germany landscapes. As a result of highly effective training and strategic planning coupled with the aid of superior equipment the U.S. Quartermaster Corps was able to provide the soldiers of the frontline with all of the materials and conveniences they could have anticipated. Without their heroic efforts the soldiers on the frontlines could not have effectively carried out their missions. ItemIn search of Baltimore's black Dominguan immigrant community, 1793-1844.(2006-09-28) Ricks, Dana LaShea; Phillips, Glenn O.; Master of Arts ItemIndispensable to Their community: An Examination of Black Undertakers in Baltimore, Maryland(2019-03-19) Jackson, Edwin Bryan; Ham, Debra Newman; Peskin, Lawrence A.; Terry, David T.; History and Geography; Master of ArtsAfrican American involvement in the death trade has been present in American history since Africans were forced through slavery to come to America. The conclusion of the Civil War ushered in the long-desired emancipation of countless enslaved blacks and the professionalization of the undertaker trade. In Baltimore, Maryland there was a thriving free black population that gave birth to a number of successful black professionals and businesses. One of the most successful businesses was that of undertaking. The business of undertaking and the undertakers themselves provided an indispensable service to their community, while satisfying important cultural and traditional needs of African Americans and their deceased loved ones. Research concerning the black undertaker’s role in the African American narrative is in its embryonic stages. It is clear however that these undertakers embodied the spirit of selfhelp and uplift. The oldest of these black undertaking firms was Joseph G. Locks, Jr. Funeral Home, which served the East Baltimore black community for over 150 years and five generations. Through the lens of several funeral homes, this thesis reveals how they and other undertakers answer the call of self-help and service to their community. This thesis also explores the records of the Board of Undertakers of Maryland, 1902 to 1935, and the impact of Jim Crow laws on undertaking. The Board of Undertakers professionalized the undertaking trade, consequently transforming black undertakers into funeral professionals. Lastly this thesis explores the role of women in these black undertaking businesses, bringing to light their history as wives, daughters, and business women. These women took over the businesses they built with their husbands, continuing to grow their business into successful enterprises that thrived for years following their succession. These women laid the foundation for the black female funeral directors of today who still face many of the same issues as their predecessors. ItemInfluence Of Public Opinion On The United States' Foreign Policy In Nigeria During The Nigeria-Biafran War, 1967-1970(2009) Anaedozie, Emeka Charles; Peskin, Lawrence A.; History and Geography; Master of ArtsThe American public was galvanized by the media depiction of tragic deaths and massive starvations in Biafra during the Nigeria-Biafra War. This situation was caused by malnutrition following the blockade of the rebel territory by the Nigerian Government. The U.S. activated a neutral policy toward the war by not supporting either of the sides. But the American public's attention was drawn to the war in the summer of 1968, about a year after the war broke out. The media at this time began paying more attention to the war by showing the extent of humanitarian crisis in the war which aroused public outrage and a call for the White House to change policy. By the fall of 1968 to the end of the war in January 1970, U.S. changed its policy of non-involvement and became more involved in the war. The Johnson administration which had seemed reluctant to get involved in the war was forced to abandon its neutral policy to adopt a policy of humanitarian intervention toward the tail end of his administration. Nixon who succeeded Johnson pursued a similar policy of humanitarian intervention in the war with few modifications. Item"Jim Crow, Yankee Style": Civil Rights and Working-Class Pottstown, Pennsylvania, 1941-1969(2019-03-29) Washington, Matthew; Terry, David T.; Morrow, Robert W.; Peskin, Lawrence A.; Levy, Peter; History and Geography; Doctor of PhilosophyBetween 1941 and 1969, activists in Pottstown, Pennsylvania, a small working-class borough in Montgomery County, organized and conducted African-American civil rights work. Through the efforts of organizations like the Pottstown NAACP, YMCA, Pottstown Civic League, and the Pottstown Committee on Human Relations, African American and white civil rights activists coordinated such black-centered activism. Also important to these efforts toward combating racial inequality was the advocacy of the town’s major newspaper, the Pottstown Mercury. Although Pottstown, which sits approximately forty miles to the northwest of Philadelphia, was not a large city, this dissertation will demonstrate that it served as an important locale of civil rights activism all the same. Indeed, Pottstown activists’ work and influence even had national impact. By conceptualizing Pottstown as such, this dissertation strays from a dominant interpretive approach utilized by scholarship that examines civil rights work in the twentieth-century urban North. Generally speaking, these studies have stressed large northern cities as the principal centers of civil rights activism. Yet, as this dissertation asserts, if Pottstown never exceeded 27,000 residents from 1941 to 1969, like other small locales in the North, its impact on the nation’s civil rights history was outsized. ItemLeading From Behind: The Role Of Women In Sharp Street United Methodist Church, 1898-1921(2010) Jamison, Felicia Lorraine; Newman-Ham, Debra Newman; History and Geography; Master of ArtsThis thesis will demonstrate the monumental role that African-American women played in Sharp Street United Methodist Church from 1898 to 1921. It was not until 1898 that women began to form independent organizations to assist in defraying the newly acquired $70,000 debt for the new edifice. Gaining a sense of autonomy, they began to assert themselves in their community and nation by participating in the Women's Club Movement and the Progressive Movement. The study concludes with the erection of the Community House in 1921. Using minutes from the Sharp Street Trustees Reports, the Afro-American newspaper, and the church newspapers, The Appeal and The Messenger, this case study will recount the story of how ordinary church women socially and financially impacted their church, community, and nation through service.