Browsing by Subject "Education -- Research papers (Graduate)."
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ItemAbsenteeism: A Descriptive Study of Student and Staff Perceptions(2018-07) Sullivan, Lisa; Masters of EducationThe purpose of this descriptive study was to determine the perceptions of students and staff participating in a self-paced blended-learning environment on the topic of absenteeism. The research and its findings examine the similarities and differences between the perceptions of students who receive special education services and their non-disabled peers. In addition, the research and its findings determine similarities and differences between the perceptions of students and staff. The reviewed literature examines the disproportionality in absenteeism rates between special education students and non-disabled peers, factors related to absenteeism, consequences of absenteeism, and interventions. Derived from the literature, survey questions were created and posed to voluntary and anonymous participants. The results revealed that there are more similarities than differences between student perceptions but some significant differences between staff and student perceptions. Implications of the study reveal the need for an increase in systemic interventions to help decrease overall absenteeism rates with a focus on aligning staff efforts with student needs. ItemThe Academic Effect of a Summer Transition Program for 9th Grade Students(2019-05) Jewell, Emily; Masters of EducationThe purpose of this study was to determine if a transition program between eighth and ninth grade will improve academic performance. The measurement tool was the Baltimore County Public School Report Card. This study involved the use of posttest design using data collected from the report cards of students. There is no significance between the two different grounds. Research in this area should continue as this time period in an adolescent's life is very important to help the student succeed in school. ItemAcademic Impacts of Vocational Training on Transition Age Students with Significant Cognitive Disabilities(2021-05-11) Rosenkrans, Jaclyn M.; Masters of EducationThis study was completed to determine if mathematical, reading, and adaptive living skills can be addressed within a multi-level vocational training program for students of transition age diagnosed with significant cognitive disabilities. This study used a quasi-experimental design comprised of a small group sampling. Participants included six students ages 16-21 previously diagnosed with a significant cognitive disability receiving instruction outside the general education classroom within a public separate day school. The results of this study indicate that vocational training resulted in a positive improvement in mathematics, reading, and adaptive behavior for students with significant cognitive disabilities. It would be valuable for future researchers to implement a similar vocational program in another school setting or for an extended length of time to determine if a greater performance age increase occurs or if the results are comparable to other members of this population. ItemAchievement in Spanish Class for Middle School Students through eLearning(2021-05-06) Nunez, Adriana; Masters of EducationThe purpose of this study was to determine whether the type of delivery of virtual instruction would affect the achievement of middle school students in Spanish class. The study was conducted with seventy-eight Middle School students enrolled in 8th grade located in Baltimore County, MD. This study evaluated students’ Spanish speaking assessments when lessons were provided with asynchronous as compared to synchronous instruction. Analysis was conducted with a dependent samples t-test. Results suggest that students who in a synchronous class scored higher than students in an asynchronous class. Overall, data indicate that students who took the asynchronous class had more difficulty familiarizing themselves with the structure and pronunciation of words. It appeared that students receiving synchronous instruction were more confident in their Spanish speaking skills. ItemAnalysis of Hands on Activity and Student Engagement in Middle School Eighth Grade Science Students(2018-05-07) Carolan, Paula; Masters of EducationThe purpose of this study was to determine whether hands-on activity in a middle school science setting would increase engagement which would then increase the test scores of one group of students versus another group that was not taught using hands-on activities. The study was a pretest/posttest design, with a teacher’s observation checklist to measure student time spent on task. A measurement tool was created by the researcher to record on-task engagement during each lesson. There was no difference in engagement of eighth grade Environmental Science students when hands-on activities were provided over textbook activities with the exception that the hands-on group had more meaningful discussion the topic with their peers. In the future, additional research could expand on the current study by including a larger sample sizes and a longer observational period. ItemAnalysis of Primary Sources and Student Engagement in Middle School Social Studies Classrooms(2017-07) Gore, Maria; Masters of EducationThe purpose of this study is to determine if the use of primary sources in middle school social studies classes would impact student engagement. The measurement tool used was created by the teacher and based on the findings of Lee in the article “The Relationship between Student Engagement and Academic Performance: Is it a Myth or Reality?” The study was quasi-experimental and used a pre- and posttest design with a comparison group. There was no statistically significant increase in student engagement when either primary or secondary sources were used, with the exception that students who analyzed secondary sourced avoided disruptions more frequently than their peers who analyzed primary sources. ItemThe Association of Parental Involvement and Youth Athletes’ Self-Esteem(2017-07) Koehn, Rosina; Masters of EducationThe purpose of this study was to determine whether there was a connection between parental involvement and youth athletes’ self-esteem in a youth boys’ soccer team. The study used a descriptive design where 13 parents filled out a Parental Involvement in Sports Questionnaire and 16 youth soccer players filled out a Self-Description Questionnaire. The data showed that the youth soccer players were very confident in their skills and showed high self-esteem, while the parents placed little pressure on their children when it came to soccer. Additional research is needed to further explain the relationship between parental involvement and youth athletes’ self esteem. ItemBehavior Management Strategies for Students with Multiple Disabilities(2016-12-19) Fox, Brent; Bowman, Christina; Dangel, Tim; Masters of EducationThe purpose of this study was to determine which behavior strategies would reduce problem behaviors and increase time on task with students with multiple disabilities in Aquatic Physical education. Students with disabilities depend on very strict structure, and when they come to physical education, they get some more freedom. In Aquatic Physical Education the water is great for helping the students who use wheelchairs to gain mobility and move with less strength needed; at the same time, the water provides the students with another sensory object to overcome so they stay on task. There are many researched methods for providing positive behavior interventions that may work in an aquatic setting with students with disabilities. For this study the focus was on a token economy system since some students were familiar with it in their classrooms. The study was a pretest-posttest design with data taken on off-task behaviors for seven days during the pretest and the posttest phases of the study. The results of the study show that the on-task behavior increased for most students while the off-task behavior decreased; however, the differences were not statistically significant. This shows that most students did respond to the token economy behavior management system in the aquatic physical education program in a positive manner. The research study showed a positive result, but for future studies, there should be a higher number of students in the sample to improve the chance of showing significance. The age range of students, from kindergarten to eleventh grade, should be limited in future studies to a small age group encompassing no more than two grade levels. ItemBehavior Specific Praise and Its Impact on Classroom Disruptions(2018-07) Knoll, Jennifer; Masters of EducationThis research explores how the use of positive behavior intervention strategies influences behaviors of students. Specifically, it addresses how behavior specific praise in the classroom affects the frequency of disruptions by nineteen eighth grade students in a low socio-economic middle school. Over a four-week period, this study used a pre-experimental design that was a variant of the one group pretest-posttest design, in that students served as their own controls under baseline and treatment conditions. The intervention increased the frequency of the teacher’s use of behavior specific praise by introducing the concept and using a digital motivator. A repeated measures t-test revealed that the mean number of disruptive behaviors per student was significantly lower during the intervention period (Mean = 4.21, SD = 6.02) than during the baseline period (Mean = 5.95, SD = 7.16) [t (18) = 4.65, p < .001]. The null hypothesis indicated that there will be no significant difference in the mean frequency of disruptive behaviors per student in the classroom environment during a baseline period and a behavior specific praise intervention. As the data was significant, the null hypothesis was rejected. ItemBehavior Specific Praise: a Positive Reinforcement Strategy and Its Impact on Classroom Disruptions(2019-05) Steinhofer, Katrina; Masters of EducationThis research explores how the use of a positive reinforcement strategy, behavior specific praise, influences student behavior and, how behavior specific praise in the classroom affects the frequency of disruptive and proactive behaviors among ten seventh grade students in a suburban middle school. Over a three-week period, this study used a pre-experimental design that incorporated one group pretest-posttest. The intervention prompted the teacher to use behavior specific praise by using an interval application on the teacher’s cell phone. A non-independent samples t-test revealed that the mean number of disruptive behaviors was significantly lower during the intervention (Mean = 21.90, SD = 11.14) than during the weighted baseline (Mean = 35.80, SD = 11.53) [t (9) = 4.00, p = .003]. The mean number of proactive behaviors conducive to learning was significantly higher during the intervention (Mean = 38.70, SD = 9.64) than during the weighted baseline (Mean = 24.20, SD = 11.53) [t (9) = 4.63, p = .001]. Consequently, the null hypothesis that there will be no statistically significant difference in the frequency of student disruptive behaviors and student proactive behaviors conducive to learning in the classroom, as measured through partial interval recording, during a baseline period and a behavior specific praise intervention period was rejected. Implications, limitations, and ideas for future research are discussed. ItemBenefits of Fostering Positive Teacher-Student Relationships(2020-05-07) Bolotin, Sonja; Masters of EducationThis correlation study explores the association between positive student-teacher relationships, academic achievement, and positive classroom behavior. The purpose of this study is to determine the importance of developing positive relationships with students in order to foster positive classroom behavior and academic performance. This study used a correlation design to measure how closely two variables relate to one another. The independent variable in the study was the positive relationships the classroom teacher-developed with the sample group. The dependent variables in the study were a School Climate and Culture Survey, mathematic and reading academic percentage data and behavioral data collected from Minor Incident Reports (MIR). The insignificance in the relationship between the variables in the correlation is represented through the following descriptive statistics. The School Climate and Culture Survey (mean = 17.79, SD = 2.5), mathematic percentage (mean = 94.04, SD = 4.4), reading percentage (mean = 91.8, SD = 4.3) and MIR behavioral data (mean = 0.33, SD = 0. 57). Consequently, a null hypothesis was accepted. The null hypothesis in this study is that behaviors and academic achievement levels of students in classrooms with positive teacher-student relationships are not significantly better nor higher than students in the classrooms without a strong culture and positive teacher-student relationships. Implications, shortcomings, and ideas for future research are addressed. ItemBilingual Education: Improvement in Literacy Skills of Non-U.S. Born Students by Providing ESOL Support and Parent Workshops(2021-12-08) Gamez, Gaston; Masters of EducationThe purpose of this study is to investigate literacy outcomes of non-U.S. born students to better support ELL parents, specifically, kindergarten and first-grade students in a public school in the state of Maryland. The measurement tool was a revision of scores from the time of enrollment and a year after attendance in schools. In this descriptive study, a pre/posttest design was utilized in kindergarten and first-grade students in one of the largest school systems in the country. The participants in this study were 12 bilingual students receiving ESOL services in a public school system. The group consisted of six male and six female students enrolled in kindergarten and first grade. These students, originally from Central America and Mexico, arrived in the United States during the 2019-2020 school year. In addition to these students, their parents were also participants in this study. Findings showed each family is from either Central America or Mexico and moved to the United States after their children were born. The researcher concluded that these monolingual speaking Spanish children, later enrolled in a public school, demonstrated improvement in their reading, speaking, writing, and comprehension skills in English. Further research must be conducted with a larger group of participants; also, it will be imperative to include educators and administrators to determine how their understanding of ELL families’ cultures and values could have an influence on the students’ learning. ItemBrain Breaks Impacting Student Achievement(2019-05) Neall, Kelly; Dwarte, Marquis; Beard, Kay; Masters of EducationChildren all across the United States have strict instructional schedules throughout the school day and many aspects, such as stress factors, home life, friends, and family impact their success in school. This study was done to determine the impact brain breaks have on student achievement. In this experimental design, 10 children in this first-grade class were given 10 minutes of brain breaks prior to completing independent work, daily. Seven children were not given brain breaks prior to the independent work time. Data was collected through spelling tests on the sound of the week, each week for 6 weeks. The findings of this study show that brain breaks had a positive impact on the achievements of the students who were exposed to them, as opposed to those who were not exposed to brain breaks. ItemA Case Study on the Impact of a Behavioral Intervention Program on the Reduction of Disciplinary Referrals(2018-07-13) Werps, Jaime; Masters of EducationThis case study examined the impact of a pull-out behavioral intervention program on the reduction of disciplinary referrals in a specific group of special education students. All participants were receiving services through an IEP under the coding of Emotional Disability, ADHD, or Multiple Disabilities (ED and ADHD). The measurement tool was documentation of their disciplinary referrals both prior to and following the implementation of the intervention. Results of the case study yielded results that were not statistically significant and should be viewed on an individualized basis. Further research into the impact of behavioral intervention programs on specific populations of students should continue to be completed in order to determine effectiveness. ItemChildhood Trauma and Reading Accuracy in Fifth Grade Students(2020-05) Green, Jessica; Masters of EducationThe purpose of this study was to examine the impact of childhood trauma on the reading performance of students enrolled in a fifth-grade classroom. It was hypothesized that students in a fifth grade Language Arts class who had experienced childhood trauma would demonstrate deficits in reading accuracy as compared to a control group of students who had experienced no childhood trauma. This study used a descriptive design that took place over a two-week period. A Screening Checklist that was developed by The National Child Traumatic Stress Network was used to identify students who had experienced trauma. The findings from this study indicated no statistically significant results, therefore the null hypothesis that there was no impact of trauma on student’s reading achievement was not rejected. ItemClass Size in Relation to Student Achievement and Behavioral Issues(2016-07) Hirschfeld, Hannah; Masters of EducationThe purpose of this action research study was to determine whether class size was related to student achievement and behavioral issues. Data reflecting students’ behavior issues and quarterly grades were gathered. In addition, teacher and student participants were surveyed regarding their perceptions of class size and its relationship to instruction, learning, and behavior. Results indicated that the overall correlation between class size and grades (r= .109) was positive and statistically significant at the p < .01 level and the overall correlation between class size and number of BIRs (r= .065) was not statistically significant. Based on results from this study, there appears to be some relationships between class size and achievement and behavior, and awareness of these relationships could be important for educators to establish effective and cost effective programs. Further research controlling for sample characteristics such as age and ability and for course content and difficulty levels appears warranted to clarify the relationships between class size, student achievement, and behaviors in varied subject areas. ItemClassroom Management Techniques in Second Grade(2020-05) Hart, Lisa; Masters of EducationThe purpose of this study is to determine the impact of positive and negative classroom management techniques on student achievement in second grade. This study will be able to determine the most effective classroom management technique(s) for student achievement. Classroom management is essential in every classroom in order for students to be successful. If an educator does not have control and respect from their students, he or she will spend more time trying to get students on task instead of teaching the students. Classroom management techniques and strategies vary from school to school. Some schools have school wide programs to ensure all educators are on the same page and in other schools every teacher does what they feel is best for their students. This study involved a lot of documentation in order to get the best results. Data was collected for Class DoJo points earned, Woodchuck bucks earned, and student grades (academic achievement). Research in the area of student behaviors is significant and provides other educators with essential information to help them in their classroom. This is especially true for low income and poverty schools. These students benefit greatly from positive reinforcement in the classroom. Students want to know that they are cared for and that their opinions matter. ItemCommunity-Based Learning: A Descriptive Study on Its Impact on Liberal Arts College Students(2019-12-05) Cordoba Arroyo, Andres; Dwarte, Marquis; Beard, Kay; Graduate Programs in Education; Masters of EducationColleges and universities have long been recognized as a major source of socially and politically active members of society. Currently, the climate surrounding topics of social justice and equity have heightened the importance of implementing community-based learning tools in postsecondary institutions to bridge the gap between knowledge and practice as well as between an academic institution and its surrounding community. Community-based learning was studied in this project as it relates to the impact on college student leaders. More specifically, using the Community-Based Learning Impact Scale, student leaders at Goucher College were asked to rank the impact of engagement in community-based learning on their professional development, psychological well-being, civic engagement, and academic learning. Using a convenience sample of 13 students, this study found an overwhelming positive effect across all areas aforementioned. ItemComparing College Choice Factors in Student Athletes vs. Non-Student Athletes(2017-12) Williamson, Grace; Coit, Tammi; Brager, Gary; Masters of EducationThe purpose of this study was to determine if there is a difference between student athletes and non-student athletes’ factors for deciding to attend a small liberal arts college in Maryland. The students were given a survey to rate 10 factors as “very important, somewhat important, not important, and N/A” to their decision to attend the college. This study concluded that there was no difference in ratings for factors more general to the college, but factors that were more specific to the athletic department, showed to be much more important to the student athletes. Research in this area should continue, so the college is aware of what continues to bring both student athletes and non-student athletes to campus. ItemComparing Preferred Coaching Behaviors of Collegiate Athletes to Self-Perceived Coaching Behaviors of Collegiate Coaches(2021-05) Cheatham, Morgan; Masters of EducationThe purpose of this study was to compare, contrast, and understand leadership behaviors most exhibited and preferred by collegiate coaches and athletes. Previous studies have found that leadership styles can have a lot to do with the skill level of each athlete, as well as their current psychological state (anxiety levels, confidence, motivation, emotional maturity, competitiveness, optimism, etc.). Team culture was also said to have a noticeable influence on the coach-athlete relationship. Using both the Leadership Scale for Sport for Athletes (Chelladurai & Saleh, 1978) and the Revised Leadership Scale for Sport for Coaches (Chelladurai & Saleh, 1980), an analysis of training behavior, positive feedback, social support, autocratic behavior, and democratic behavior was conducted. Results found that training behavior, social support, and positive feedback should be at the forefront of the five leadership styles, while autocratic behavior should be avoided in most instances.