Browsing by Subject "First grade (Education) -- Research."
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ItemA Comparison of the Efficacy of Phonics Instruction With and Without Technology(2013-07) Sprague, Kathleen Keck; Masters of EducationThis study, a quasi-experimental pretest-posttest design, was conducted by a first grade classroom teacher to determine if providing opportunities for first grade students to practice phonics using an iPad and computer games would increase their phonics skills more than using traditional methods of teaching phonics which did not include technology. Students from three first grade classes with relatively low DIBELS (Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills) scores were randomly assigned to one of three groups. All students received the same daily phonics instruction as part of their reading curriculum. One group participated in supplemental phonics practice using the iPad and computer games. Another group received supplemental phonics practice using paper-and-pencil methods and hands-on techniques such as manipulating materials and playing word games. A third group did not receive any additional phonics practice. At the conclusion of the study, all students were tested using a parallel version of the previously given DIBELS tests and the gain scores of the three groups were compared. The results of the study demonstrated improvement in test scores for all three groups. There was not a significant difference in student gain scores for the three groups. Ratings of participants’ attitudes towards their activities suggested that there were positive effects of using technology to practice phonics skills. The technology group found their activities more enjoyable and helpful than the traditional group. This finding suggests that students enjoyed practicing phonics on the iPad and computer more than they did using traditional methods. Further research should be conducted to explore how specific technologies can be used most effectively to improve the phonics skills of first grade students. ItemThe Effect of Behavioral Preventions and Interventions on Disruptive Behaviors in a First Grade Classroom(2014-06) White, Rachel; Masters of EducationThe purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of The Good Behavior Game on the frequency of disruptive behaviors that were exhibited in a classroom setting. This study utilized a quasi-experimental design with a pre-measure, treatment, and post-measure and included 15 students enrolled in a Baltimore County public school. The participants in this study ranged in age from 6-7 and were in first grade. The study hypothesized that participation in The Good Behavior Game, which involved the students in establishing and following clearly stated rules and provided incentives for success, would have no effect on the frequency of targeted disruptive behaviors. These behaviors included not following directions, unnecessary talking, unnecessary movement, and making noises. The hypothesis was rejected as all four targeted disruptive behaviors decreased over the course of the study. Three out of four of the targeted disruptive behaviors, excluding not following directions, decreased significantly over intervals of the study. Further study of the usefulness of The Good Behavior Game and similar interventions appears warranted. ItemThe Effects of Direct Vocabulary Instruction on Reading Comprehension Skills on a First Grade Student with Autism(2015-07) Enders, ClaudiaThe purpose of this pre-experimental design case study was to examine the effectiveness of direct vocabulary instruction on reading comprehension skills of a 1st grade student with autism. The measurement tool for this study was comprehension quick checks from Reading A-Z (http://www.reading a-z.com). The student in this study functioned as his own control under alternating patterns of fiction and nonfiction. The conditions were alternated weekly in an ABABABAB design. During the first condition, the student received direct comprehension strategy instruction. In the second condition, the student had direct vocabulary instruction in addition to comprehension strategy instruction. Dependent variable data was collected during the spring 2015 semester. The total quick check scores from the two conditions were compared; however, the scores were not subjected to statistical analysis due to a sample size of one. The data indicates a trend in which the subject performed better when receiving direct vocabulary instruction. Implications and recommendations for future research are discussed. ItemThe Effects of Repeated Readings on the Fluency of First Grade Students(2013-05) Lanman, Kne-Shall; Masters of EducationThe purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of repeated readings on the fluency of first grade students. This study utilized a quasi-experimental design that included a pre-assessment and treatment, followed by a post-assessment. There were ten participants in this study which included three African American males, three Caucasian females, two African American females, and two Hispanic females. Data was collected by the researcher over a period of six months. The study hypothesized that there will be no statistically significant improvement in reading fluency, as measured by the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Literacy Skills (DIBELS) assessment, of students who received repeated reading instruction over a six month period when their results are compared with their performance on the reading fluency portion of the DIBELS assessment that was administered at the beginning of the year. The results suggested that there were statistically significant differences overall in the performance of students on the DIBELS Oral Reading Fluency assessment. This study supports previous research on the effectiveness of implementing a repeated reading program in the first grade classroom. ItemThe Relationship between DIBELS Scores and Reading Comprehension Grades in First Grade(2013-05) Tortorello, Cynthia; Masters of EducationThe purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between scores on a commonly used reading screening test (the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills, or DIBELS) and reading comprehension grades of first grade students. The concurrent and predictive relationships between DIBELS scores and comprehension grades (based on percentage scores of Treasures First Grade Weekly Assessments) were examined using fall and spring assessment (DIBELS) data and grades. These relationships were of interest because DIBELS scores are used to form small reading groups, which are a source of intense comprehension instruction. Even though DIBELS subtests do not assess comprehension directly, they have an effect on comprehension skills because of the placement of students in these groups. Different groups receive different types of comprehension instruction based in part on DIBELS scores, so understanding the relationship between DIBELS scores and comprehension could help inform instruction and ensure interventions are appropriate. No statistically significant correlations were found between fall and spring DIBELS scores and reading comprehension scores. The only significant correlations found were those between two DIBELS subtest scores (Correct Letter Sounds and Whole Words Read). While this study showed limited correlations between DIBELS and comprehension grades, other studies have suggested DIBELS has satisfactory validity and reliability. Overall, the results supported the conclusion that teachers should use caution and consider data in addition to DIBELS results when making instructional decisions. ItemUsing Reader’s Theatre to Improve Oral Reading Fluency(2013-07) Hart, Erin; Masters of EducationThe purpose of this study was to determine the effects of Reader’s Theatre on the reading fluency achievement of first grade students. The mid-year/end of year oral reading fluency portion of the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Learning Skills (DIBELS) was used as the pretest/posttest for this study. A treatment group, receiving Reader’s Theatre, and a control group were chosen based on similar pretest scores. Reader’s Theatre was administered for five weeks, while the control group received the normal small group reading instruction. While the results of the study demonstrated that the students in both groups showed gains in oral reading fluency, the control group significantly out-preformed the Reader’s Theatre group on the posttest. This study contains internal and external threats to validity. Research concerning best practices for reading fluency instruction should continue; fluency is needed for strong independent reading comprehension.