Browsing by Subject "Reading (Elementary) -- Research."
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ItemThe Effects of Direct Vocabulary Instruction on Reading Comprehension Skills on a First Grade Student with Autism(2015-07) Enders, ClaudiaThe purpose of this pre-experimental design case study was to examine the effectiveness of direct vocabulary instruction on reading comprehension skills of a 1st grade student with autism. The measurement tool for this study was comprehension quick checks from Reading A-Z (http://www.reading a-z.com). The student in this study functioned as his own control under alternating patterns of fiction and nonfiction. The conditions were alternated weekly in an ABABABAB design. During the first condition, the student received direct comprehension strategy instruction. In the second condition, the student had direct vocabulary instruction in addition to comprehension strategy instruction. Dependent variable data was collected during the spring 2015 semester. The total quick check scores from the two conditions were compared; however, the scores were not subjected to statistical analysis due to a sample size of one. The data indicates a trend in which the subject performed better when receiving direct vocabulary instruction. Implications and recommendations for future research are discussed. ItemThe Effects of Integrating Encoding and Decoding Instruction on the Word Attack Skills of Second Grade Students Reading Below Grade Level(2015-07) Greenbaum, LindsayThe purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of teaching encoding instruction during spelling lessons in comparison to also integrating decoding instruction in order to strengthen the word attack skills of second grade students reading below grade level. The measurement tool for this study was a Phonological Awareness Assessment of Nonsense Words developed by the researcher. The study employed a pre-experimental design with a convenience sample of a group of fifteen second-grade students from February 2015 to April 2015. The result of the post assessment showed the students scored significantly higher on the word list which was taught with combined encoding and decoding strategies (Word List 2; Mean = 16.40, SD = 2.41) than on the word list taught with just encoding strategies (Word List 1; Mean = 14.40, SD = 3.11 [ t(14) = 3.20, p = .006]. Implications and recommendations for future research are discussed and include continuing to examine these instructional methods, both in isolation and combined. ItemThe Effects of the Shoot for the Goal Contest on Reading Performance for Sixth Grade Middle School Students(2013-05) Stout, Elaina; Masters of EducationThe purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of implementing the Shoot for the Goal contest on the reading performance of sixth grade students. This ten-week study used a quasi-experimental pretest/posttest research design with the students who participated in the contest serving as the treatment group and the students who did not participate in the contest serving as the control group. The measurement tool used in this study to indicate growth was the Anne Arundel County Public Schools (AACPS) Fall and Winter Reading and Language Arts Benchmark exams. The independent variable for this study was the Shoot for the Goal contest, and the dependent variable was the difference in the students’ reading comprehension performance on the AACPS Reading and Language Arts Benchmark exam. A t-test for independent groups procedure was used. These results (t = .597, df = 285, p =.551) suggests that the difference in the amount of increase in performance among students who participated (i.e. 5 percentage points) versus those who did not participate (i.e. 4 percentage points) was not statistically significant. In addition, a t-test procedure was used to compare the pretest versus posttest performance of males versus females, and these results (t = 2.309, df = 141, p = .022) suggest that the overall mean difference in performance between males (7.5) and females (2.5) on the Fall Language Arts Benchmark versus Winter Benchmark exams was statistically significant. Further research is warranted to analyze the effectiveness of contests on the reading performance of middle school students. ItemThe Impact of Reading Strategy Instruction on Student Performance(2013-05) Tracy, Shannon; Masters of EducationThe purpose of this study was to determine whether teaching select reading strategies from the Comprehension Toolkit would improve the reading comprehension of lower achieving 3rd grade students. The study was quasiexperimental with a posttest-only design comparing the reading comprehension scores of two groups of third grade students. Students were chosen based on their 2nd grade stanine scores in passage comprehension on GRADE. The median stanine scores ranged from 3 to 5. Both groups received the same daily reading instruction within the classroom. The treatment group of ten students received ten weeks of reading strategy instruction in a before-school class that met once a week for one hour. The control group of 11 students received no additional assistance. Comparison of median scores on the school system’s reading benchmark test, administered after treatment was delivered, revealed no significant difference in performance between the groups. Although there were no significant findings, observations and other research suggests that teaching reading strategies may improve reading comprehension. Educational implications and suggestions for future research are discussed. ItemReading fluency in second grade students(2010-08) Fox, Jocelyn; Masters of EducationThe purpose of this study is to determine which intervention strategies could improve second grade students’ fluency rates on the DIBELS assessment most effectively. The interventions implemented were Repeated Readings and a combination of Repeated Readings and Reader’s Theater. The measurement tool was the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS). This study involved the use of a pretest/posttest quasi-experimental design to compare data from January 2010 (before the intervention was administered) to data from March 2010 (after the intervention was complete). Achievement gains were not statistically significant. However, findings of the study may have been influenced by intervening factors such as a lack of time, changes in classroom schedules, or questions of validity with the assessment. Research in the area of reading fluency should continue given the relationship between increased reading fluency and strong reading comprehension. ItemReading Motivation and Achievement in 5th Grade Students(2013-05) Somerville, Rainna L.; Masters of EducationThe purpose of this study was to examine the impact of reading incentive programs in a 5th grade classroom on reading and reading achievement. It was hypothesized that students in a 5th grade Language Arts class who were given an opportunity to participate in a reading incentive program would not show improvement in reading comprehension and reading motivation when compared to a control group that received no reading incentive program. The study used a quasiexperimental design and took place over a three-month time period. A pretest/posttest model was used to determine the effectiveness of the reading incentive/motivation program. The findings from this study indicated no statistically significant results, and therefore the null hypothesis that there would be no difference in AR points or STARS instructional placement level was retained. ItemUsing Reader’s Theatre to Improve Oral Reading Fluency(2013-07) Hart, Erin; Masters of EducationThe purpose of this study was to determine the effects of Reader’s Theatre on the reading fluency achievement of first grade students. The mid-year/end of year oral reading fluency portion of the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Learning Skills (DIBELS) was used as the pretest/posttest for this study. A treatment group, receiving Reader’s Theatre, and a control group were chosen based on similar pretest scores. Reader’s Theatre was administered for five weeks, while the control group received the normal small group reading instruction. While the results of the study demonstrated that the students in both groups showed gains in oral reading fluency, the control group significantly out-preformed the Reader’s Theatre group on the posttest. This study contains internal and external threats to validity. Research concerning best practices for reading fluency instruction should continue; fluency is needed for strong independent reading comprehension.