Browsing by Subject "Reading comprehension -- Research"
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ItemDifferentiated Instructional Techniques and their Effect on Student Reading Comprehension Achievement(2011-07) Clauss, Molly; Masters of EducationThe purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of using a variety of differentiated instructional (DI) techniques to improve the reading comprehension scores of third grade students on the Anne Arundel County Public Schools Reading and Language Arts Benchmark exams. This study involved a control group and a treatment group of students enrolled in one third grade class. The study involved the use of a quasi-experimental design using a pre/posttest to compare data from October 2010 (before DI techniques were implemented) to May 2011 (after DI techniques were completed). The results of this study indicate that DI did have a significant impact on reading achievement from the first Benchmark exam to the third Benchmark exam. Research supports that differentiated instructional (DI) techniques should be used in classrooms to improve motivation during reading instruction and overall reading achievement. Further research is needed to determine if the differentiated instructional techniques would be more beneficial for students in other classes across grade levels. ItemThe Effect of Close Reading on Reading Comprehension Scores of Fifth Grade Students with Specific Learning Disabilities(2014-07) Blouin, Erica; Masters of EducationThe purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of explicit reading comprehension strategies versus close reading strategies for aiding reading comprehension of similar historical fiction texts. The measurement tools were researcher-created assessments. The study involved a pre-experimental design with a convenience sample of a group of eight fifth grade students with specific learning disabilities that served as their own controls. The results of both assessments showed that there were no significant differences between the mean reading comprehension scores under the explicit (Mean = 66.63, SD = 6.41) and closed (Mean = 66.88, SD = 13.85) [t(7) = 0.06, p > .05] conditions. Implications and recommendations for future are discussed throughout the study. ItemThe Effect of Dialogue Journals on the Reading Comprehension Achievement of Fourth Graders(2014-07) Baker, Kevin W.; Masters of EducationThe purpose of this study was to determine the impact of dialogue journals on student achievement in the area of reading comprehension for fourth graders. The participants of this study were fourth grade students in a Baltimore County Public School. The measurement tools for this study were the 2012-2013 Baltimore County Fourth Grade Fall and Winter Benchmark Assessments. This study used a pretest-posttest design with the Fall Benchmark being used as the pre-test and the Winter Benchmark being used as the post-test. The null hypothesis was supported for this study as there was no significant gains made by the group using the dialogue journals. Research in the area of reading comprehension interventions and effective writing strategies to help improve student achievement should continue to help provide further assistance to struggling students. ItemThe Effect of Early Literacy Small Group Instruction on Reading Comprehension(2013-07) Mancusi, Emily; Masters of EducationThe purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of small group instruction in early literacy skills on the reading comprehension skills of struggling second grade students. This study used a quasi-experimental design with a pre and posttest. The study included 10 second grade students of various racial and ethnic backgrounds. All participants were reading significantly below grade level. The study’s null hypothesis was that small group instruction would have no effect on the reading comprehension skills of second grade students who are reading below grade level. The results support the null hypothesis, since no significant difference in reading scores was observed using the Qualitative Reading Inventory (QRI). The results of this study do not support the results of other research studies that have shown that small group early literacy skills will improve reading comprehension. Future studies should utilize a larger sample size, longer duration, and a more practical assessment. ItemThe Effect of Increased Sight Word Knowledge on the Comprehension of Below Level Third Grade Readers(2014-05) Serio, Nanette; Masters of EducationThe purpose of this study was to determine whether increasing sight word knowledge in below level third grade readers impacts their comprehension of a simple text. The intervention implemented was the repeated use of flash cards with the first through third grade Dolch words, 20 minutes of daily guided reading instruction, interactive games and websites students practiced with during independent time, and homework assignments focused on the sight word practice. The measurement tools used were the 128 Dolch words from first, second, and third grade lists and a passage containing all 220 common Dolch sight words for a pre- and post-test comprehension assessment. This study involved the use of a quasi-experimental, pretest/posttest repeated measures design to compare data from before the intervention was implemented in February 2014 to data from after the intervention was implemented in April 2014. Achievement gains in sight word knowledge were apparent for all students involved in the study. Findings of the study may have been influenced by intervening factors such as changes in classroom schedules, parent involvement at home or questions of validity with the assessment. Research in the area of sight word knowledge should continue given the relationship between the sight word recognition and increased reading comprehension. ItemThe Effect of Literature Circles on the Reading Comprehension Scores of Middle School Students with Decoding Deficits(2015-05) Rascher, SamanthaThe purpose of this study was to determine the impact on seventh grade students with decoding deficits who participated in novel-based literature circles on a reading comprehension assessment as compared to a similar control group. The post-test was researcher-designed utilizing seventh grade middle school language arts standards in reading comprehension. The test was based on reading selections separate from the novel used in the literature circle. The literary circle group's (n = 10) mean score (Mean = 10.20, SD = 2.82) on the reading comprehension test did not differ significantly from the control group's (n = 10) mean score (Mean = 8.40, SD = 1.84) [t(18) = 1.69, p = .11]. Although the study did not provide statistical evidence of the value of literature circles, there were limitations to the study. In addition, researcher observations indicated that literature circles can be a valuable component to reading instruction. Further research in this area should explore whether literature circles can improve reading comprehension when incorporated with more explicit reading comprehension instruction. ItemThe Effect of Parental Involvement on Reading Comprehension(2011-05) Greaver, Lauren; Masters of EducationThe purpose of this study was to determine whether parent involvement would improve reading comprehension of prekindergarten students over a four week period. The measurement tool was an informal reading inventory assessment. This study involved the use of a pretest/post-test design to compare data between the control and experimental groups from March 2011 to April 2011. The analysis revealed that parental involvement had no impact on student reading achievement. Both the experimental and control groups experienced significant increases in their reading scores. The results of this study were likely due to student maturation and direct classroom instruction. Further research regarding the effects of parental involvement should be conducted to determine the long term benefits of improving student achievement. ItemThe Effectiveness of Explicit Instruction of Expository Text Reading Strategies on the Student Comprehension of 6th Grade Social Studies Content(2010-07) Rector, Katharine A.; Masters of EducationThe purpose of this study was to determine the effect of explicit instruction of expository text reading strategies on the comprehension of sixth grade social studies content. This study was a quasi-experimental study completed using two groups of sixth grade students in four different social studies classes. One group of subjects, made up of two classes, received explicit instruction in two different expository text reading strategies for a four week period. The subjects were given a pre-test prior to the treatment and then a post-test following the treatment. The data collected from the treatment group were compared to a control group of students using an independent t-test and no significant differences were found after the treatment. Therefore, this study presented no significant improvement in the performance of students who did receive explicit instruction of strategies compared to those who did not. ItemThe Effectiveness of Literature-Based Instruction as an Instructional Tool in Teaching Reading Comprehension to First Graders(2011-07) Wooster, Melissa; Masters of EducationThe purpose of this study was to examine the difference between literature-based instruction and traditional reading instruction in promoting reading comprehension among first graders. The measurement tool was DIBELS, Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills. This study involved the use of a pretest/posttest design to compare data from January 2011 (before implementation of literature-based instruction) to May 2011 (after the posttest was given). Reading comprehension gains were not significant, though results could be attributable to a number of intervening factors. Further research should continue in the area of literature-based instruction given the more current research of best teaching practices and student needs. ItemThe Effects of Preschool Attendance on First Grade Reading Achievement(2011-05) Benson, Jillian; Masters of EducationThe purpose of this causal-comparative study was to determine if different types of preschool experiences had a differential effect upon students‟ reading achievement when compared with the reading achievement of students who have had no preschool experience. The participants in this study were enrolled in a public school located in Anne Arundel County, Maryland, for the 2010-2011 school year. Both DIBELS and Running Record scores were collected from the September and January assessments for the 37 participants. An analysis of variance was run for both DIBELS (Nonsense Word Fluency and Oral Reading Fluency) and Running Records (Oral Fluency and Comprehension). The findings indicated that there was not a statistically significant difference in the performance of students who attended private preschool, versus the performance of those who attended public or no preschool programs. Future studies should consider including more participants and including participants from a variety of geographic areas. ItemThe Effects of Repeated Reading on Struggling Third Grade Readers [sic] Reading Comprehension(2015-07) Roussey, LauraThe purpose of this study was to determine the impact of the strategy of repeated reading on the reading comprehension of struggling third grade students. This study was quasi-experimental with a pretest and posttest comparing the comprehension scores of the experimental group to the control group of third grade students. Students were randomly chosen based on their small group instructional groups, and their Fountas and Pinnell (F&P) comprehension score. Both groups used the same materials in small group and whole group instruction. The experimental group of 13 students were guided in small group instruction using the repeated reading strategy over the course of eight weeks. The control group of 12 students did not receive additional instruction. Comparison of the pretest and the posttest scores showed no significant difference to suggest that repeated reading is a strategy that would increase reading comprehension among struggling third grade readers. Although the scores did not show significant differences, observations of the experimental group and research suggest that teaching students through the repeated reading strategy can be beneficial to student’s motivation in reading. ItemThe Effects of Self-Selected Reading on the Reading Comprehension Level of Children of Poverty in an Eleventh Grade Classroom(2014-12) Whitley, Brian; Masters of EducationThe purpose of this study was to determine whether monitored, self-selected reading would affect the reading achievement of 11th grade children of poverty. The measurement tool was the reading comprehension portion of the Accuplacer Test taken online. This study was a quasi-experimental design that involved the use of a pretest/posttest strategy to compare data over an eight-week period of intervention. Achievement gains were significant, although other factors may have impacted the results. More research into implementing this low-cost intervention for students of poverty should be investigated as the need to prepare students for the rigors of college becomes more important as more and more jobs are now requiring higher levels of education. ItemThe Effects Vocabulary Instruction has on Third Graders’ Reading Comprehension Skills(2014-06) Ishakis, Gittel; Masters of EducationThe purpose of this research was to examine whether direct vocabulary instruction affects the reading comprehension of third grade students. Study participants were 23 third grade reading students. The study took place over a five week period, during which all students completed one reading assessment under both the treatment and control conditions each week. To accomplish this, the first test of each week was given under the control condition, and the second was given under the treatment condition. In the treatment condition, direct instruction regarding new vocabulary was provided. The teacher used a five step plan to teach students new vocabulary words prior to completing a five item comprehension assessment. In the control condition, the students were given parallel passages to read and assessments which they completed independently without any teacher instruction .The scores earned in the treatment condition were significantly higher than those earned in the control condition. The study provides evidence that vocabulary instruction can have a positive effect on reading comprehension. ItemImpact of Drawing in Response to Reading on the Reading Comprehension Skills of Fourth Grade Students(2015-05) Stewart, LaurenThe purpose of the study was to determine whether the reading comprehension skill of fourth grade students identified as average readers improves when they sketch in response to reading a text before answering comprehension questions compared to simply reading and responding. A quasi-experimental design was used. The participants in this study were 12 fourth grade students from a public elementary school in Anne Arundel County. Of the 12 students, 6 were males and 6 were females. The Comprehensive Quality Rating Tool and the fourth grade Common Core Informational/Explanatory Text Based Rubric were both used to measure the students’ answers to the comprehension questions. The Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test, a non-parametric test, was used to compare median scores obtained under treatment conditions across 10 writing samples with those obtained under control conditions (same 10 writing samples). Median rubric scores were not significantly different under the two different conditions. The hypothesis that the comprehension of fourth grade students prompted to draw in response to reading nonfiction text will not be different from their comprehension without the prompt was not rejected. Recommendations for future research include using students who are below grade level with below level text, to have students draw throughout reading rather than drawing right before answering a question, to further explore the gender differences in this matter, and to explore different genres of text. ItemThe Impact of Repeated Reading on Fluency and Comprehension(2011-05) Maddox, Lisa; Masters of EducationThe purpose of this study was to examine whether repeated reading interventions improve third grade students’ fluency and reading comprehension. Third grade students with a rating of basic in comprehension as assessed with Anne Arundel County Language Arts Benchmark 1 and at risk according to the DIBELS oral reading fluency (ORF) and retell fluency (2002) used a strategy called repeated reading (RR) over the course of four weeks. This was done in order to determine whether the technique would increase students’ fluency and comprehension of text. Pretest and posttest scores from the County Language Arts benchmark 1 and 2 (comprehension) and from the third grade passages on DIBELS ORF were compared with these of other basic students in the group who did not receive the repeated reading strategy in order to determine whether the students who read the text more than once increased their fluency and comprehension scores. The data shows that repeated reading was successful in improving students’ comprehension scores based upon differences in their pretest versus posttest performance on the Anne Arundel County Language Arts Benchmark 1 and 2. Statistically significant results were obtained for African American students only when the pretest and posttest results from the DIBELS Oral Reading Fluency and Retell assessments were compared. Research into repeated reading should continue as there was some improvement in the performance of students on an individual basis, suggesting that additional time for implementation may influence reading comprehension and fluency growth. ItemThe Instruction of Effective Questioning and Discussion Strategies to Improve Reading Comprehension(2015-07) Sawyer, JaynaThe purpose of this study was to investigate whether the effects of questioning and discussion strategies impact reading comprehension for 2nd grade students. The participants of this study were 26 students enrolled in a Baltimore County school for the 2014-2015 school year. The students were divided into two groups in which both groups received regular whole group instruction. However, only one group received additional instruction on effective questioning and discussion strategies. The measurement tools used were an English-Language Arts diagnostic and culminating assessment designed by Baltimore County and the Informal Discourse Measure. This study involved a pretest/posttest design to compare data from April 2015 to data from May 2015, after the interventions were completed. The null hypothesis was supported for this study since there was no significant differences between the two groups. ItemThe Relationship between Small Group Reciprocal Teaching and Reading Comprehension(2014-07) Szymanski, Jennifer; Masters of EducationReading comprehension is a complex process often made increasingly difficult as readers are faced with content oriented reading material. The purpose of this study was to determine whether reciprocal teaching in the small group setting has an effect on reading comprehension. It was predicted that small group reciprocal teaching will have no significant effect on third grade students’ reading comprehension. Over the six weeks, students received reciprocal reading instruction designed to help internalize reading strategies that according to research, enhance comprehension. Results suggested small group reciprocal teaching had a positive effect on reading comprehension. When reciprocal teaching was applied in the small group setting, these participants demonstrated an increase in their comprehension.