Browsing by Subject "UMBC Instructional System Design"
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ItemAudiographics used in distance learning(Australian Council for Computers in Education, 1994-09) Collins, Mauri P.; Berge, Zane L.This paper presents an introduction to audiographics technology, its advantages and disadvantages and a short summary of responses to an ongoing, informal inquiry into the present uses of audiographics. ItemBalancing Top-Down, Bottom-Up, and Peer-to-Peer Approaches to Sustaining Distance Training(Anadolu University, 2006-07) DUDINK, Gertrude; BERGE, ZaneMany distance training case studies identify distance training leadership as bottom-up, whereas much of the literature suggests a need for strategic, top-down approaches. With change management as an overarching framework, approaches to sustaining distance training that originate at different levels of the organization are explored. Special attention is paid to the content of the change messages involved, guided by Rogers’ five attributes of innovations. Research of change management and distance training literature suggests a combination of approaches that should fit the organizational culture as well as correctly address genuine concerns at the various organizational levels. A properly balanced approach could lead to new levels of communication and understanding in a learning organization and to distance training being sustained as a business process. ItemBarriers To Communication In Distance Education(Anadolu University, 2013-01) Berge, Zane L.To a large extent education can be thought of as a communication process among the participants. This article focuses on distance education, which has both the general communication processes that in-person education venues possess, and also communication specific to the technologies that mediate the teaching and learning taking place at a distance. There are various opportunities and barriers to effective communication. An exhaustive review of literature regarding communication barriers to distance education summarizes the technical, psychological, social, cultural, and contextual challenges leading to a significant conclusion: that as technology used for distance education improves so does both the opportunities to overcome many of the barriers to ineffective communication and the complexity of the barriers that are faced by the participants. The hierarchy of this structure is described. ItemBarriers to distance education as perceived by managers and administrators: Results of a survey(2000-01) Berge, Zane L.; Muilenburg, Lin Y.It is becoming increasingly unusual to pick up a professional training or education journal without seeing articles concerning alternatives to in-person teaching and learning. Distance education is not new, but the new technologies used for delivery in recent decades have fueled different perspectives, methods, and debates than had been the case starting a century ago. The technologies used to deliver education at a distance have changed, and have also allowed a broader range of teaching methods to be used. Still, no one believes now, if ever they did, that this is a panacea. There are many barriers to successful distance education—some are new but many have plagued distance education since it was first conceived. ItemBarriers to Distance Education: A Factor-Analytic Study(Taylor & Francis, 2009-09-24) Muilenburg, Lin; Berge, Zane L.This article reports on a large‐scale (n = 2,504), exploratory factor analysis that determined the underlying constructs that comprise barriers to distance education. The ten factors found were (1) administrative structure, (2) organizational change, (3) technical expertise, (4) social interaction and quality, (5) faculty compensation and time, (6) threat of technology, (7) legal issues, (8) evaluation/effectiveness, (9) access, and (10) student‐support services. ItemBarriers to Distance Education: Perceptions of K-12 Educators(Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education, 2003-01) Berge, Zane; Muilenburg, Lin Y.Instructional-use computers are continuing to migrate into the classrooms, with public schools reporting over half the installed base now located in classrooms. Still, education struggles with the rapid expansion of technology. This article reports on findings from a survey (n=2504) of respondents working in elementary, middle, and secondary schools (n=159). The survey concerns barriers perceived in distance education and is based on prior research involving content analyses of the case studies along with an extensive review of the literature. Demographic data about the respondents is reported for job functions, delivery systems, individual expertise in distance education, and organizational capabilities regarding distance education. Perceptions of these respondents concerning barriers to distance education reported, along with comparisons to respondents not working in K-12. ItemBarriers to Online Teaching in Elementary, Secondary, and Teacher Education(1999) Berge, Zane L.; Mrozowski, Susan E.A review of the literature regarding the barriers to the use of educational technology in primary and secondary education was done. An emphasis was placed on the diffusion of computers in the schools, since the focus of this study is to determine what should be expected as computer-mediated communication (CMC) is used in schools to teach in online environments. A categorical framework, similar to one used by the first author for analysis of barriers to the use of CMC in higher education, was used (Berge, 1998). The nine categories of barriers are: academic, fiscal, geographic, governance, labor-management, legal, student support, technical, and cultural. The literature review of barriers to the use of educational technology in K- 12 using this framework suggested the primary areas of concern are academic, cultural, and technical. Secondary areas of concern are labor-management and fiscal issues, with little or no mention of geographic, governance, student support, or legal aspects of diffusion of technology. To test whether the use of CMC as one important area of educational technology entering K-12 teaching and learning, a recently published four volume series of books titled, “Wired Together: Computer- Mediated Communication in K-12” was analyzed. Taken together, the seventy-two (72) chapters in these four books, mostly case studies, represent a considerable body of experience in online teaching and learning in K-12, pre and in-service teacher training. The content analysis was done 1) to determine how many different barriers to online teaching were mentioned across all the contributors, i.e., to indicate the range of the obstacles, and, 2) to determine how often each particular category of barriers was mentioned, i.e., to indicate the perceived severity of these issues. The results are quite consistent when compared to the more general review of literature regarding educational technology. ItemBarriers To Online Teaching In Post-Secondary Institutions: Can Policy Changes Fix It?(University of West Georgia, 1998-06) Berge, Zane L.Recent technological advances have increased the overall amount of information available and improved accessibility to that information, while at the same time the costs of publishing information have decreased. These general shifts throughout society are true in education and have caused students to be more demanding and more knowledgeable about alternatives for their education. Combined with demographic trends, political forces, economic factors, the need for lifelong learning, and the changing emphases in teaching and learning, there is a resurgence of interest in distance education both at traditional institutions of higher education and in organizations whose sole mission is distance education (Dede, 1990; Knott, 1992; Lewis and Romiszowski, 1996). Can higher education at "traditional" universities change to meet the new student demands and the intense competition among education providers that distance education brings? The use of computer-mediated communication in distance learning to create online classrooms has become a popular means of distance learning, both in mixed mode with face-to-face instruction or as a sole channel of education at a distance. By online teaching or online instruction for the purposes of this article, I mean those activities limited to primary delivery by computer-mediated online instruction, as opposed to delivery systems such as audio or video/TV. Additionally, I am referring to instruction in which the course interaction is conducted completely online, or significantly online (i.e., where, at the minimum,. 50% of the graded part of the course is online). ItemBlended Learning Creating The Right Delivery Systems To Solve Business Problems(i-Manager Publications, 2007-03) Knoll, Elisabeth; Berge, Zane L.This paper addresses the concept of blended learning, an approach that has been gaining popularity in recent years with the advancement of computer-mediated training solutions. It begins with an effort to define blended learning and a description of its historical context. A discussion of blended learning as a learner-centric approach follows, including a brief examination of the advantages and disadvantages of both instructor-led instruction and Web-based training in relation to the learner. The benefits and challenges of blended learning are identified, as well as the basic steps necessary for creating a blended program. Examples from corporate and military environments are included. The paper concludes with a look to the future of blended learning, whose growth and influence promises to soar in the coming years. ItemBlending the Worst of Both Worlds On-Campus and Online Education(Educational Technology Publications Inc., 2006-11) Berge, Zane ItemBlogs as an Instructional Medium(Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia, 2009) Kessinger, Jesse; Berge, Zane L.Blogs are becoming more popular as an instructional medium. Yet many instructors do not know how blogs can be effectively used in instruction or their benefits and limitations. Without effective guidance, many instructors may avoid using them instructionally all together or use them in an ineffective manner. It is my hope that, with some direction and guidance, instructors can utilise this exciting tool to positive effect. This paper will give instructors guidance in utilising blogs as an instructional delivery medium and clarify the strengths and limitations of the medium. While blogging has both benefits and limitations, it is clear that it is a useful instructional medium. ItemBook reviews : Distance education, learning, research(Educational Technology Publications Inc., 2012-02) Berge, Zane ItemBook Reviews: Smart Company. Mark Salisbury. iLearning: How to create an innovative learning organization(Educational Technology Publications Inc., 2009-05) Berge, Zane L. ItemBringing Out the Best in Virtual Teams(IGI Global Disseminator of Knowledge, 2009) Schoenfeld, Janet; Berge, ZaneThe use of computer-mediated communication (CMC) is more popular than ever in both educational and corporate settings. Schools and corporations are using virtual communication to replace or supplement in-person classes and meetings. Many educators and managers are taking it a step further, having teams work in a virtual setting with members rarely or never meeting each other in person. Can a virtual team be as successful as a team where everyone works in the same physical location? Does anything different need to be done to compensate for the lack of face-to-face contact? This article identifies unique factors for virtual teams, and then provides recommendations and guidelines that can help virtual teams be successful. With the right planning, virtual teams can equal or exceed the performance of face-to-face teams. ItemCan Interest in Distance Training be Sustained in Corporate Organizations?(2005-02) Berge, Zane L.; Kendrick, Adrian A.Establishment of distance training solutions in corporate organizations has increased on a large scale all around the world. This is especially true among organizations that have employees and clients scattered in various locations around the globe. The implementation of distance training is an effective tool for reducing training cost, saving time, and creating a more knowledgeable and productive workforce. Even so, implementation of distance training in corporate organizations is moving at a relatively slow pace (Lane, n.d.; Portway & Lane, n.d.). One theory is that many organizations just do not have the internal expertise to properly plan for the change in learning paradigms. Other organizations find it difficult to foster wide scale interest and now struggle to maintain their distance training program. The purpose of this article is to analyze various obstacles that stifle interest in sustaining distance training in corporate organizations. The secondary purpose is to develop some possible solutions that can be used by organizations to implement and maintain distance training programs. In this article, a distance training program is defined as an organizational process, consisting of policies and procedures specific to departments’ or divisions, functions and responsibilities (Schreiber and Berge, 1998). ItemChallenges and Strategies for Sustaining eLearning in Small Organizations(University of West Georgia, 2007-09) Leary, John; Berge, Zane L.The fact that small organizations have been slow to adopt elearning is not because of a lack of need – in fact elearning offers tremendous benefits for small organizations in the form of time savings, captured expertise, improved workflow and improved staff development – but rather because small organizations tend not to have the right components and working atmosphere in place that allow for the adoption of elearning. There are three main ingredients that will enable this to occur for even the smallest of organizations: a learning culture, a web savvy staff, and the presence of at least one good training professional. Economies of scale that often help justify elearning for larger corporations are not applicable for small organizations, therefore managers must therefore take a closer look at how elearning can solve multiple problems faced by the small, busy staff. By integrating elearning into an organization’s strategic plan, and by combining e-learning with a knowledge management system, a virtual network, education partnerships, or other tools and strategies, smaller organizations can improve office efficiency and program effectiveness on a sustained basis with elearning. ItemA Champion’s Role in Sustaining a Distance Learning Program(Elearning Guild, 2008-05-15) Hamel, Aynsley; Berge, Zane ItemComputer Conferencing and online education(1993-05-20) Berge, Zane L.; Collins, MauriThis article proposes a model for viewing computer conferencing within a communications framework. It supplies an overview of how CC is similar to, and yet different from other channels of communication. The capabilities of CC such as synchronous and asynchronous communications and archiving are described. Benefits of CC, such as professional growth, information processing, independence of time and distance are discussed, as are the limitations of the media. Those features most significant to educational uses (i.e., text-based with features of face-to-face communication; promoting student-student and student-instructor interactions) are explained. ItemCORPORATE LEARNING IN A VIRTUAL WORLD(2009-07) COLE, ANNE; BERGE, ZANE L.Corporate training professionals led the explosion of e-learning solutions in the 1990s. Yet in 2008, as new generations of technology-savvy, computer games-oriented employees are entering the workforce, corporate training departments are far behind universities in exploring the use of virtual worlds like Second Life or Protosphere as platforms for corporate learning. Virtual world learning early adopters like IBM and Intel are laying the groundwork for what promises to be a critical shift in the education of younger employees to collaborative, constructivist learning within increasingly sophisticated online worlds. In the meantime, the development of new pedagogies that address virtual world learning should help corporate learning organizations begin to embrace the inevitable incorporation of virtual worlds into their learning strategies. ItemCreating Student Interaction within the Educational Experience: A Challenge for Online Teachers(2009-02-20) Schrum, Lynn; Berge, Zane L.The purpose of this article is to look carefully at the design and development of online courses, and identify significant issues surrounding the creation of interactivity among and between students and the instructor. With the rapidly expanding online movement, many educators are faced with teaching in this new environment and yet have had little experience to inform their practice. The article provides support for educators as they begin to create courses for an online environment. The challenges include a necessary reconceptualization of the design process, including evaluation, and a new role for educators as they begin to create courses for an online environment. The challenges include a necessary reconceptualization of the design process, including evaluation, and a new role for educators. Most importantly, each educator has to provide opportunities for student to student and student to instructor interaction. The authors identify issues, provide suggestions, and offer specific strategies to begin educators' efforts at successful use of the online educational environment.