Browsing by Subject "communication"
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ItemAdaptive signaling behavior in stomatopods under varying light conditions(Taylor and Francis Online, 2009-09-07) Cheroske, Alexander G.; Cronin, Thomas W.; Durham, Mary F.; Caldwell, Roy L.Stomatopod crustaceans (mantis shrimp) are aggressive benthic marine predators with extraordinary color vision. When communicating with conspecifics, many stomatopods display conspicuously colored body areas, often in combination with other types of signals such as motion and chemical cues. Some species occupy wide depth ranges (>30 m), where changing light conditions can influence color perception. To test the potential effects of differing ambient lights on signaling behavior, stomatopods (Gonodactylus smithii) interacted with conspecifics in aquaria, under full-spectrum, high intensity light or light restricted in either spectrum or intensity. During intrasexual and intersexual trials in full-spectrum, high intensity light, animals performed more aggressive acts using colored body parts (meral spread, lunge, strike). Stomatopods used significantly more antennular flicking, and performed aggressive acts at reduced distances under restricted light conditions. To compare the use of antennules in visual and chemical communication, additional experiments showed more antennular flicking in response to chemical stimuli from food or conspecifics compared to seawater controls. This response ceased immediately after ablation of antennular chemoreceptors but returned to pre-treatment levels after 5 days of recovery. These findings suggest that stomatopods can vary their use of signals during conspecific interactions under different photic conditions. These inducible, plastic behavioral responses can potentially improve signal transfer in varying light environments. ItemAn Analysis of the Effect of Internal Communication Satisfaction on Organizational Commitment in the Turkish National Police (TNP)(2012-01-12) Seven, Hilmi; Henderson, Lenneal J.; University of Baltimore. Yale Gordon College of Public Affairs; University of Baltimore. Doctor of Public AdministrationThe main purpose of this study, which used two different survey questionnaires for data collection, was to examine the relationship between organizational- communication satisfaction, as measured by the Communication Satisfaction Questionnaire (CSQ), and organizational commitment, as measured by the Organizational Commitment Questionnaire (OCQ) in the Turkish National Police (TNP). The target population for this study was Turkish officers who were pursuing a master's degree or a doctoral degree and those who already had one of these degrees from an institution of higher learning. Therefore, this is a study of officers aspiring to the command level of the TNP. The quantitative data were collected by an electronic version of the translated two research questionnaires, which were sent through e-mail as a hyperlink to the Web page for recipients to record their responses. The survey yielded 358 usable responses, equating to approximately a 55.5 percent response rate. The statistical results showed that Turkish officers rated their overall satisfaction with communication practices at the midrange on a scale of 1 (very dissatisfied) to 7 (very satisfied). The mean score of the overall communication satisfaction for the entire data set was 4.01, which was very close to the "indifferent" category. This means that Turkish officers were neither satisfied nor dissatisfied with the overall communication practices of the TNP. They actually reported neutral attitudes toward the degree of satisfaction with overall communication procedures. TNP officers were more satisfied with certain communication practices within their organization. For example, they were more satisfied with Horizontal Communication than they were with other communication aspects within the TNP. On the other hand, satisfaction with communication concerning Organizational Perspective received the lowest score. The Turkish officers rated their level of agreement with the commitment questions above the midrange on a scale of 1 (strongly disagree) to 7 (strongly agree). The mean score of commitment for the entire data set was 4.88, which was near the "somewhat agree" category. This means that highly educated Turkish officers were committed to their organization. In stepwise multiple-regression analysis, three communication-satisfaction factors (i.e., Communication Climate, Organizational Integration, and Relationship and Communication with Superiors) and their corresponding items were found to have the most statistically significant predictive power for organizational commitment to the TNP. The Pearson correlation coefficients between the communication-satisfaction factors and overall organizational commitment show that all communication-satisfaction factors have moderately strong positive correlation with the overall organizational-commitment composite. The Pearson correlation coefficients between these variables for the entire data set range from 0.537 to 0.313 and significant at the 0.01 level. In addition, the data showed that there is a positively and moderately strong relationship between the overall organizational-commitment and the overall communication satisfaction of highly educated officers in the TNP. A positive value of the Pearson correlation coefficient (0.567) suggests that the nature of the relationship is moderately strong and linearly positive. The Pearson correlation coefficient between the commitment composite score and Intent to Remain (0.670) shows that Intent to Remain and the commitment-composite variables are positively and linearly correlated variables. Eventually, the intentions of Turkish officers to remain with the TNP tend to increase positively and linearly as their commitment goes up to the TNP. Briefly, Communication satisfaction has a positive impact on organizational commitment and eventually intent to remain with the TNP. The key demographic and professional characteristic (e.g., tenure, rank, educational level, unit assignment, and age) exhibited too small of a correlation with overall organizational commitment to be considered, and none of results were significant. Therefore, the data provide sufficient evidence to conclude that tenure, rank, educational level, unit assignment, age, and overall organizational commitment were not correlated variables in the TNP. These variables have no effect on the level of officers' commitment to the organization. Similarly, the results showed that there were no significant relationship between the key demographic and professional characteristics and overall communication satisfaction. Hence, officers' overall level of satisfaction with communication practices of the TNP is not changed by length of tenure, educational level, and unit assignment. In conclusion, Turkish officers' job outcomes, such as organizational commitment and intention to remain, are affected by their perceptions of communication within the TNP. The more satisfied officers are with communication procedures within the TNP, the higher their commitment level; conversely, the less satisfied that officers are with TNP communication procedures, the less commitment they have to the organization. In other words, more committed officers are significantly more satisfied with communication practices than less committed officers in the TNP. Eventually, the intentions of highly educated Turkish officers to remain with the TNP tend to increase positively and linearly as their commitment goes up. ItemConnected: Polarization in Online Environments(2021) Borden, Brittani A.; Ward, Stanley J.; Stevenson University Online; Communication StudiesThis case study will analyze research surrounding the rhetoric of polarization in online environments and how it can influence behavior and emotion. Through the analysis and review of three socialites who were vocal on Twitter regarding polarized ideas three groups, hate groups, fandom groups, and political parties, are cross analyzed to see how individuals who identify with these groups show trends in rhetoric. This text will highlight connections and differences in the rhetorical styles used by each group and how they potentially inspired behavior from March through October of 2020 in United States based online environments during a number of Black Lives Matter and Make America Great Again protests. Polarization is defined and applied to each public figures’ tweets within the time frame are examined for potential ability to influence behavior. The purpose of this research is to examine how each group showed differences or similarities in outgroup versus ingroup rhetoric and better understand how such rhetoric can be increasingly impactful when introduced or reinforced in online settings as social media use rises worldwide. ItemFrom paper to trees: How literature has developed forestry, agriculture, and wildlife conservation in the United States(2023-01-24) O'Boyle, William; Biology; Honors programThis literature review looked at works which impacted the scientific and environmental thinking of the United States between 1599 and 2019. Over forty works are cited as having some kind of influence on the general American public or the way natural sciences operate and communicate today. The resulting paper argues for more members of the STEM fields and the natural sciences to pick up creative writing skills, proficiency in rhetoric, and overall communication skills. ItemThe Fundamental Problem of the Science of Information(Springer Nature Switzerland AG, 2019-02-28) Cárdenas-García, Jaime F.; Ireland, TimothyThe concept of information has been extensively studied and written about, yet no consensus on a unified definition of information has to date been reached. This paper seeks to establish the basis for a unified definition of information. We claim a biosemiotics perspective, based on Gregory Bateson’s definition of information, provides a footing on which to build because the frame this provides has applicability to both the sciences and humanities. A key issue in reaching a unified definition of information is the fundamental problem of identifying how a human organism, in a self-referential process, develops from a state in which its knowledge of the human-organism-in-its environment is almost non-existent to a state in which the human organism not only recognizes the existence of the environment but also sees itself as part of the human-organism-in-its-environment system. This allows a human organism not only to self-referentially engage with the environment and navigate through it, but also to transform it in its own image and likeness. In other words, the Fundamental Problem of the Science of Information concerns the phylogenetic development process, as well as the ontogenetic development process of Homo sapiens sapiens from a single cell to our current multicellular selves, all in a changing long-term and short-term environment, respectively. ItemHospitality Service Innovations in Private Clubs(Sage, 2015) Randhawa, Praneet; Kim, MiRan; Voorhees, Clay; Cichy, Ronald; Koenigsfeld, Jason P; Perdue, JoeService innovation positions an organization to create and deliver anticipatory service that exceeds member expectations and ultimately strengthens relationships. However, service innovation remains one of the most under-researched topics in hospitality. This study begins to fill that gap by exploring the strategies and factors that drive service innovation in the private club industry. Drawing insights from approximately 700 critical incidents reported by private club general managers/chief operating officers, we examined the common strategies and factors that assist clubs in developing and launching new services and products. Moreover, we also categorize pressing issues in the industry that are ripe for future innovation. The findings may have implications not only for the club industry but also for the hospitality industry in general. ItemHow we talk about race: Interracial family communications on race, identity and the role of social context(2018-01-01) Emery, Lindsay Rochelle; Brodsky, Anne; Psychology; PsychologyThe population of mixed-race children and interracial families in the United States continues to grow at a rapid rate and multiracial children represent one of the fastest growing youth groups in the country. The past several decades have shown an increase in social and psychological research aimed at understanding the experiences of multiracial Americans. Thus far, research tends to focus on either the experience and perspectives of multiracial individuals or the perspectives of the interracial couple (e.g. parents), each independent of one another. In the racial socialization literature, there remains a gap in understanding how interracial families discuss topics of race and identity together with their children. In addition, understanding how the broader social context in which these families live shapes those conversations has not been directly explored. The current study utilized qualitative methods to explore and describe how interracial families, who identify as having one Black and one White parent, communicate with their multiracial 13-17-year-old children on topics of race and identity. Interviews explored how multiracial children and their parents perceive racial socialization and parenting practices relevant to racial identity and how social contextual factors (e.g., community racial climate, racial composition, attitudes toward interracial relationships) shape the way families discuss racial topics and navigate their social environments when it comes to issues of race and identity. Findings demonstrated that parental views on their own racial identity, specifically the salience, centrality, and meaningfulness of this identity, in addition to how they have come to interpret and navigate race-related issues in their own lives, shapes the way in which they approach race-related conversations with their children. Parental level of racial consciousness, particularly among the White mothers, also emerged as a relevant factor in shaping race communication between parents and their children. Biracial children’s understanding on the significance and meaning of their own racial identity related to the ways parents were engaging their child in topics related to race and identity, in addition to children’s previous racialized experiences in their community and school environments. Data from the current study was used to create an emergent model, entitled "interracial family communication on race,” on the connections between parental and child meaning-making on racial identity, family communication on race, and the role of the larger social context. Individual-level interpretation of one’s identity and racialized experiences shaped the way in which parents approached race talk with their child, which also related to the overall racial ideology espoused in the family. Triangulation in perspectives on racial socialization practices among parents and children showed that family members tended to hold greater convergence on the content of race-related messages but diverged more in deciding how and when such conversations should occur. Macro-level sociopolitical factors, such as community racial composition and climate, social movements, attitudes toward interracial families, and the political climate directly shaped the initiation, frequency, and value parents held in having conversations related to race and identity with their Biracial children. Overall, this research illuminates the experience of a sample of eight interracial Black/White families in America today, fifty years after the Loving v. Virginia Supreme court decision, a moment that shifted our country’s understandings on what defines a marriage and a family. ItemIntercultural Competence and its Assessment: A Critical Contextualization(2017-01-01) Hernandez-Moreno, Beatriz; Field, Thomas; Modern Languages, Linguistics & Intercultural Communication; Intercultural CommunicationAs globalization shifts towards an increasingly more interconnected conception of the world, many nations, cultures and people find themselves in intercultural situations with an unprecedented regularity. When these intercultural encounters take place, an individual needs to apply what has come to be called "intercultural competence" in order to act and communicate "effectively and appropriately." Both public and private institutions, as well as scholars, have taken an interest in this new concept, and assessment tools to measure the degree that an individual may attain in such competence are now being used in a wide array of contexts. Assessing a concept whose meaning and implications are still being debated makes the task challenging, yet different fields are navigating these mostly-uncharted waters in search of the key that will enable intercultural competence to be taught, developed and assessed successfully in different situations. A critical mind, however, must ask some uncomfortable questions. What do labels like "effective," "appropriate" or "successful" imply when applied to intercultural exchanges and how do they impact our modern conception of intercultural competence? Which philosophical currents and ideas inform the requirements for an individual to qualify as interculturally competent, and how do these ideas fit into the current globalized era we live in? Is it possible to frame the contextualization of intercultural competence and its assessment by determining the gaps, flaws and limitations that its practical application possesses, and what does this mean for its future theoretical, conceptual and practical development? None of these questions has an easy answer. This paper hopes to shed some light on what lies behind intercultural competence and its assessment, at a philosophical, historical and practical level. After all, although the concept seems to be widely considered acceptable, positive and worth of encouragement, what is often overlooked is the fact that it was created within a specific system and born of a specific philosophy of mind, and thus fulfils a specific purpose in the delicate, imbalanced dynamics that exist between cultures and nations nowadays. ItemPhysiological Synchrony, Stress and Communication of Paramedic Trainees During Emergency Response Training(ACM, 2020-12-27) Misal, Vasundhara; Akiri, Surely; Taherzadeh, Sanaz; McGowan, Hannah; Williams, Gary; Jenkins, J. Lee; Mentis, Helena; Kleinsmith, AndreaParamedics play a critical role in society and face many high stress situations in their day-to-day work. Long-term unmanaged stress can result in mental health issues such as depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Physiological synchrony - the unconscious, dynamic linking of physiological responses such as electrodermal activity (EDA) - have been linked to stress and team coordination. In this preliminary analysis, we examined the relationship between EDA synchrony, perceived stress and communication between paramedic trainee pairs during in-situ simulation training. Our initial results indicated a correlation between high physiological synchrony and social coordination and group processes. Moreover, communication between paramedic dyads was inversely related to physiological synchrony, i.e., communication increased during low synchrony segments of the interaction and decreased during high synchrony segments. ItemTransmission of linearly polarized light in seawater: implications for polarization signaling(The Company of Biologists Ltd, 2004-07-12) Shashar, Nadav; Sabbah, Shai; Cronin, Thomas W.Partially linearly polarized light is abundant in the oceans. The natural light field is partially polarized throughout the photic range, and some objects and animals produce a polarization pattern of their own. Many polarization-sensitive marine animals take advantage of the polarization information, using it for tasks ranging from navigation and finding food to communication. In such tasks, the distance to which the polarization information propagates is of great importance. Using newly designed polarization sensors, we measured the changes in linear polarization underwater as a function of distance from a standard target. In the relatively clear waters surrounding coral reefs, partial (%) polarization decreased exponentially as a function of distance from the target, resulting in a 50% reduction of partial polarization at a distance of 1.25–3·m, depending on water quality. Based on these measurements, we predict that polarization sensitivity will be most useful for short-range (in the order of meters) visual tasks in water and less so for detecting objects, signals, or structures from far away. Navigation and body orientation based on the celestial polarization pattern are predicted to be limited to shallow waters as well, while navigation based on the solar position is possible through a deeper range. ItemUnderstanding Socio-technical Challenges and Benefits of Instructional Tools in Telementoring(2022-01-01) Semsar, Azin; Mentis, Helena; Kleinsmith, Andrea; Information Systems; Information SystemsThe rise of remote workers in a wide array of industries from manufacturing to surgery has led to the proliferation of telecommunications devices to support these future work practices, aiming to gain greater access to expertise that is often distributed across locations. However, current telecommunication systems provide limited support for team knowledge sharing, i.e., the process within which team members collectively contribute to developing a shared understanding of the work, through which expertise, or in-situ knowledge is acquired. The objective of my dissertations research is to develop a systematic understanding of the impact of proper use of a tele-instructional technology, through applying a set of pre-identified communication skills, on team knowledge sharing in telementoring tasks, where a local trainee is acting upon objects mentored by a remote trainer. With a thorough examination of the trainee and trainer's discourse in distributed training, this dissertations demonstrates that effective use of the pointing and drawing tools, and engaging the trainee in the decision making makes the team knowledge level grounding process more efficient by increasing the trainers' expansion of the knowledge and taking the trainees' perspective, followed the trainees' increased provision of relevant action and answers in response to trainees inquiries. On the other hand, the unmet needs of two-sided virtual engagement, co-ownership over the virtual space, and recall impair trainees' proactive behaviors contributing to the knowledge co-construction. I propose socio-technical implications for addressing the observed needs. My findings contribute to expanding our understanding of what needs to be implemented in an effective telementoring environment.