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ItemAssessing the role of commercial aquaculture in displacing mangrove forest(2013) Hamilton, Stuart E.To fill a gap in the marine science literature, I calculated the amount of mangrove deforestation in tropical estuaries that is attributable to commercial aquaculture. The eight countries analyzed were Indonesia, Brazil, India, Bangladesh, China, Thailand, Vietnam, and Ecuador. Together these countries contain approximately 36% of the world's remaining mangrove forest. One precommercial aquaculture remote sensing survey and one current remote sensing survey were undertaken in the major mangrove holding estuaries in each nation. The time period of the analysis varied by country based on the first arrival of large-scale commercial aquaculture, with the majority of initial surveys occurring in the early to mid-1970s and all the current surveys occurring post-2004. The surveys classified the land cover of 110,557 randomly located estuarine point locations and examined the land-cover change over time for each of these discreet locations. Among the largest and most representative account of global mangrove to aquaculture conversion, this study revealed that mangrove forests have lost 51.9% of their aerial extent during the analysis period. Of the mangrove loss during this period, I estimate that commercial aquaculture accounted for 28% of total mangrove loss across all nations resulting in approximately 544,000 ha of mangrove forest converted to aquaculture. There were significant differences in mangrove loss and mangrove to aquaculture conversion from nation to nation and even within nations. ItemBefore the garage: Beginnings of Silicon Valley, 1909–1960(Smithsonian National Museum of American History, Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation, 2015-10-23) Adams, Stephen B.Stephen Adams, Lemelson Center Fellow and Professor at Salisbury University delivers September's colloquium talk, "Before the Garage: Beginnings of Silicon Valley, 1920–1960," which examines the origins of the Silicon Valley as we know it today. ItemThe Benefits and Challenges of Acquisitions in a Consortium(2009) Douglas, Steven; Flinchbaugh, Michelle; Kruse, Ted; Ohler, Lila; Zimmerman, Martha ItemBusiness community structures and urban regimes: A comparative analysis(Journal of Urban Affairs, 2007) de Socio, MarkRegime theorists often present business interests as coherent and unified communities with unitary interests. A central principle of regime theory, however, is that business elites tend to occupy privileged positions within regime coalitions because of the scope of resources and expertise they command and cities require for economic development and/or fiscal solvency. Cities are generally home to a wide range of business activities operating at various scales, and business elites representing various corporations in different economic sectors arguably command different kinds of resources and expertise that are functional to the economic activities with which they are affiliated. Various mixes of business elites representing different economic activities might therefore produce differentially biased input regarding urban policy-making and affect the types of regime coalitions that cities develop. Utilizing compilations of interlocking directorates among major organizations across three sectors, profiles of the corporate and social community structures of 24 U.S. cities are generated and a correlation matrix comprised of business and social organizational categories is produced. Factor analysis of the correlation matrix identifies three separate mixes of corporate and social organizational categories that generally conform to descriptions of developmental, caretaker, and progressive regime typologies. These three factors serve as prototypes of the three broad regime types and their corporate community structures. Correlations of the 24 cities with each of the three regime prototypes generally match their regime types as identified through previous case studies. Variations in regime types among cities might therefore be attributed to varying degrees of diversity in the kinds of corporations headquartered or located within them. Closer attention to the economic base of cities—the producers, after all, of local business elites—may reveal internal biases and/or material predisposition towards some urban policies over others by local business elites in relation to the economic activities with which they are linked. ItemCharacteristics of teachers' conversations about teaching mean, median, and mode(2009) Groth, Randall E.The study analyzed a conversation among a group of teachers responsible for teaching the concepts of mean, median, and mode. After reading an article describing some specific student difficulties in learning the concepts, teachers were asked to discuss how the teaching of the concepts could be improved. Several claims pertinent to improving teaching practice were offered. Claims focused on the appropriate age at which to introduce statistical concepts, the influence of the state-prescribed curriculum on teaching practice, content-specific teaching strategies, and content-independent teaching strategies. Teachers’ claims were discussed in terms of points of departure and agreement with existing empirical research. ItemCharacterizing key developmental understandings and pedagogically powerful ideas within a statistical knowledge for teaching framework(2013) Groth, Randall E.A hypothetical framework to characterize statistical knowledge for teaching (SKT) is described. Empirical grounding for the framework is provided by artifacts from an undergraduate course for prospective teachers that concentrated on the development of SKT. The theoretical notion of “key developmental understanding” (KDU) is used to identify landmarks in the development of SKT subject matter knowledge. Sample KDUs are given for the subject matter knowledge categories of common content knowledge, specialized content knowledge, and horizon knowledge. The theoretical notion of “pedagogically powerful idea” is used to describe how KDUs must be transformed to become useful in teaching. Examples of pedagogically powerful ideas for the pedagogical content knowledge categories of knowledge of content and teaching and curriculum knowledge are provided. Knowledge of content and students is hypothesized as a basis for the development of pedagogically powerful ideas. ItemCreation of a high spatiotemporal resolution global database of continuous mangrove forest cover for the 21st Century (CGMFC-21)(2016) Hamilton, Stuart E.; Casey, DanielAim: To provide high-resolution local, regional, national and global estimates of annual mangrove forest area from 2000 through to 2012 with the goal of driving mangrove research questions pertaining to biodiversity, carbon stocks, climate change, functionality, food security, livelihoods, fisheries support and conservation that have been impeded until now by a lack of suitable data. Location: Global, covering 99% of all mangrove forests. Methods:We synthesized the Global Forest Change database, the Terrestrial Ecosystems of the World database and the Mangrove Forests of the World database to extract mangrove forest cover at high spatial and temporal resolutions. We then used the new database to monitor mangrove cover at the global, national and protected area scales. Results:Countries showing relatively high amounts of mangrove loss include Myanmar, Malaysia, Cambodia, Indonesia and Guatemala. Indonesia remains by far the largest mangrove-holding nation, containing between 26% and 29% of the global mangrove inventory with a deforestation rate of between 0.26% and 0.66% per year. We have made our new database, CGMFC-21, freely available. Main conclusions: Global mangrove deforestation continues but at a much reduced rate of between 0.16% and 0.39% per year. Southeast Asia is a region of concern with mangrove deforestation rates between 3.58% and 8.08%, this in a region containing half of the entire global mangrove forest inventory. The global mangrove deforestation pattern from 2000 to 2012 is one of decreasing rates of deforestation, with many nations essentially stable, with the exception of the largest mangrove-holding region of Southeast Asia. We provide a standardized spatial dataset that monitors mangrove deforestation globally at high spatio-temporal resolutions. These data can be used to drive the mangrove research agenda, particularly as it pertains to monitoring of mangrove carbon stocks and the establishment of baseline local mangrove forest inventories required for payment for ecosystem service initiatives. ItemA Cross-Cultural Exploratory Study of the Linkage between Emotional Intelligence and Managerial Effectiveness(2003) Shipper, Frank M.; Kincaid, Joel; Rotondo, Denise M.; Hoffman, Richard C.Multinationals increasingly require a cadre of skilled managers to effectively run their global operations. This exploratory study examines the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and managerial effectiveness among three cultures. EI is conceptualized and measured as self-other agreement concerning the use of managerial skills using data gathered under a 360-degree feedback process. Three hypotheses relating to managerial self-awareness of both interactive and controlling skills are examined using data from 3,785 managers of a multinational firm located in the United States (US), United Kingdom (UK), and Malaysia. The two sets of managerial skills examined were found to be stable across the three national samples. The hypotheses were tested using polynomial regressions, and contour plots were developed to aid interpretation. Support was found for positive relationships between effectiveness and EI (self-awareness). This relationship was supported for interactive skills in the US and UK samples and for controlling skills in the Malaysian and UK samples. Self-awareness of different managerial skills varied by culture. It appears that in low power distance (PD) cultures such as the United States and United Kingdom, self-awareness of interactive skills may be crucial relative to effectiveness whereas in high PD cultures, such as Malaysia self-awareness of controlling skills may be crucial relative to effectiveness. These findings are discussed along with the implications for future research. ItemCutting without Cursing: A Successful Cancellation Project(2016-07-01) Hardy, Beatriz Betancourt; Zimmerman, Martha C.; Hanscom, Laura A.; SU LibrariesThe Salisbury University Libraries embarked on a serials and database cancellation project in the 2014-2015 academic year, eventually cutting nearly 20% of journals without causing any faculty protests. Picking up ideas from numerous other libraries, the three-person project task force developed a three-stage process: 1) preparation—gathering data and laying the groundwork for getting feedback; 2) getting feedback from liaisons, faculty, and departments; and 3) making decisions about what to cut and sharing the results. This article details the steps taken and key recommendations for other libraries undertaking similar projects. ItemA day in the life of a statistical knowledge for teaching course(2013) Groth, Randall E.Teachers’ statistical learning needs differ from those of individuals in other professions. Along with learning statistical content, they must develop the ability to teach statistics to others. This paper illustrates how both needs can be addressed simultaneously in an undergraduate course grounded in a statistical knowledge for teaching framework. A typical day in the course is presented to demonstrate application of the framework. It is also suggested that practicing teachers can benefit from using the framework to set their own professional development goals. ItemDeveloping a Library Collection in Bioinformatics: Support for an Evolving Profession(IGI Global, 2013) Martin, VictoriaThis chapter provides guidelines for developing a university library collection for bioinformatics programs. The chapter discusses current research and scholarly communication trends in bioinformatics and their impact on information needs and information seeking behavior of bioinformaticians and, consequently, on collection development. It also discusses the criteria for making collection development decisions that are largely influenced by the interdisciplinary nature of the field. The types of information resources most frequently used by bioinformaticians are described, specific resources are suggested, and creative options aimed at finding ways for a bioinformatics library collection to expand in the digital era are explored. The author draws on literature in bioinformatics and the library and information sciences as well as on her ten years of experience providing bioinformatics user services at George Mason University. The chapter is geared towards practicing librarians who are charged with developing a collection for bioinformatics academic programs as well as future librarians taking courses on collection development and academic librarianship. ItemEcuador’s mangrove forest carbon stocks: A spatiotemporal analysis of living carbon holdings and their depletion since the advent of commercial aquaculture(2015) Hamilton, Stuart E.; Lovette, JohnIn this paper we estimate the living carbon lost from Ecuador’s mangrove forests since the advent of export-focused shrimp aquaculture. We use remote sensing techniques to delineate the extent of mangroves and aquaculture at approximately decadal periods since the arrival of aquaculture in each Ecuadorian estuary. We then spatiotemporally calculate the carbon values of the mangrove forests and estimate the amount of carbon lost due to direct displacement by aquaculture. Additionally, we calculate the new carbon stocks generated due to mangrove reforestation or afforestation. This research introduces time and LUCC (land use / land cover change) into the tropical forest carbon literature and examines forest carbon loss at a higher spatiotemporal resolution than in many earlier analyses. We find that 80 percent, or 7,014,517 t of the living carbon lost in Ecuadorian mangrove forests can be attributed to direct displacement of mangrove forests by shrimp aquaculture. We also find that IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) compliant carbon grids within Ecuador’s estuaries overestimate living carbon levels in estuaries where substantial LUCC has occurred. By approaching the mangrove forest carbon loss question from a LUCC perspective, these findings allow for tropical nations and other intervention agents to prioritize and target a limited set of land transitions that likely drive the majority of carbon losses. This singular cause of transition has implications for programs that attempt to offset or limit future forest carbon losses and place value on forest carbon or other forest good and services. ItemExamining the Role of Leadership in an Undergraduate Biology Institutional Reform Initiative(2016) Matz, Rebecca; Jardeleza, SarahUndergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education reform continues to be a national priority. We studied a reform process in undergraduate biology at a research-intensive university to explore what leadership issues arose in implementation of the initiative when characterized with a descriptive case study method. The data were drawn from transcripts of meetings that occurred over the first 2 years of the reform process. Two literature-based models of change were used as lenses through which to view the data. We find that easing the burden of an undergraduate education reform initiative on faculty through articulating clear outcomes, developing shared vision across stakeholders on how to achieve those outcomes, providing appropriate reward systems, and ensuring faculty have ample opportunity to influence the initiative all appear to increase the success of reform. The two literature-based models were assessed, and an extended model of change is presented that moves from change in STEM instructional strategies to STEM organizational change strategies. These lessons may be transferable to other institutions engaging in education reform. ItemAn exploration of students' statistical thinking(2006) Groth, Randall E.The statistical thinking exhibited by 14-19 year old students during clinical interview sessions is described. The students’ thinking in regard to fundamental statistics concepts is reported in order to help inform instructional practice. ItemAn exploration of two online approaches to mathematics teacher education(2009) Groth, Randall E.; Burgess, Claudia R.The purpose of the present study was to examine the nature of the discourse generated by two different online approaches to mathematics teacher professional development. Thirty mathematics teachers participated in online activities involving analysis and discourse about artifacts of teaching practice. Half were randomly assigned to a group that analyzed and discussed students work samples, and the other half to a group focused upon descriptions of classroom teaching episodes. Teachers formed threads of conversation on asynchronous discussion boards as they considered the different aspects of each artifact. Within the threads, different orientations toward the reform agenda in mathematics education were shown. Some messages were strongly rooted in the reform paradigm, others in the traditional paradigm, and many others contained elements characteristic of each paradigm. The distribution and characteristics of the messages reflected teachers’ frequent attempts to try to reconcile the largely incompatible paradigms undergirding reform-oriented and traditional approaches to mathematics instruction. This paper describes the nature of the discourses occurring within each group of teachers with the aim of providing empirical grounds to inform the actions of teacher educators and researchers designing online learning environments that attempt to bring teachers more fully into the reform-oriented discourse about teaching mathematics. ItemExploring location patterns of gasoline stations on Virginia’s Eastern Shore: Field logistics and lessons learned(Material Culture Review, 2014) Macpherson, Bradley M; de Socio, Mark ItemGasoline station morphology on Virginia’s Eastern Shore(Southeastern Geographer, 2013) Macpherson, Bradley M; de Socio, MarkGasoline stations are a ubiquitous component of the modern built environment. Gasoline stations are largely included within people’s daily spatial routines given the nature of modern transportation, particularly in mobile societies like the United States, and represent a material infrastructure that underlies and facilitates daily economic activities. As such, gasoline stations are generally relegated to the background of contemporary cultural landscapes because the action of obtaining gasoline for one’s vehicle has become such a routine and mundane activity that it is hardly given any forethought. Yet, the changing form and function of gasoline stations (hence the term ‘‘morphology’’) along with changing technologies in transportation and transportation infrastructure has rendered many gasoline stations obsolete. Utilizing nearest neighbor analysis, this paper identifies and documents changing spatial patterns and functions of gasoline station locations throughout Virginia’s Eastern Shore by decade and documents changing cultural and economic uses of recycled gasoline stations. ItemGeographers mobilize: A network-diffusion analysis of the campaign to free Ghazi-Walid Falah(Antipode, 2010) de Socio, MarkIn summer 2006, Professor Ghazi-Walid Falah, a political geographer and editor-in-chief of the journal Arab World Geographer, was arrested by Israeli police after taking photographs of rural landscapes in Northern Galilee. Falah was subsequently held for 23 days, incommunicado, and without charge. An international campaign to “Free Ghazi” was launched by his family, friends and colleagues, largely over academic listservs and other media. Utilizing social network analysis and contextualizing the campaign within structures of telecommunications technologies, the purpose of this paper is to assess the various factors that contributed to the campaign’s coalescence, its rapid development, and its global reach. ItemGeopolitics from above: A review of US-Turkey bilateral relations, 1947-2006(The Arab World Geographer, 2008) Gokmen, Mahmut; Falah, Ghazi-Walid; de Socio, MarkThis paper analyzes geopolitical changes and continuity in bilateral relations between Turkey and the United States from the Truman Doctrine in 1947 to the present. While the relationship was referred to as an “alliance” during the Cold War, established with a common interest in containing the Soviet Union, the post–Cold War era posed important challenges and transformed the relationship into a “strategic partnership.” The post–September 11 era has put the viability of the strategic partnership under scrutiny: relations between the two countries have been going through a crisis, especially under the impact of the United States’ war on Iraq from March 2003 on. Bilateral U.S.–Turkish relations in this era have evolved from a “strategic partnership” to a “partnership for democracy and war on terrorism” in the greater Middle East. ItemGeopolitics from below: Student perceptions of contemporary US-Turkey relations(The Arab World Geographer, 2008) Gokmen, Mahmut; Falah, Ghazi-Walid; de Socio, MarkThis paper analyzes a survey involving 288 participants from three Turkish universities (Sabanci University, Gebze Institute of Technology, and Istanbul University) that was carried out to evaluate and analyze students’ opinions on U.S.–Turkey bilateral relations. This survey was intended to ascertain the wider geopolitical perspectives of Turkish university students on the relationship between the two countries. It attempted to give a voice to those actually affected by policies emerging from this bilateral relationship, and thus open another empirical and “grounded” window on the students’ perceptions of bilateral situations. The survey asks a range of questions about the nature of U.S.–Turkey relations, current constraints and obstacles in the relationship, and the future prospects and strengths of ties between the two countries. The survey results reveal an increased scrutiny of the viability of this strategic partnership, especially given the impact of the U.S. war in Iraq and its ramifications for Iraqi and Turkish Kurds.