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ItemA Cross-Cultural Exploratory Study of the Linkage between Emotional Intelligence and Managerial Effectiveness(2003) Shipper, Frank M.; Kincaid, Joel; Rotondo, Denise M.; Hoffman, Richard C.Multinationals increasingly require a cadre of skilled managers to effectively run their global operations. This exploratory study examines the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and managerial effectiveness among three cultures. EI is conceptualized and measured as self-other agreement concerning the use of managerial skills using data gathered under a 360-degree feedback process. Three hypotheses relating to managerial self-awareness of both interactive and controlling skills are examined using data from 3,785 managers of a multinational firm located in the United States (US), United Kingdom (UK), and Malaysia. The two sets of managerial skills examined were found to be stable across the three national samples. The hypotheses were tested using polynomial regressions, and contour plots were developed to aid interpretation. Support was found for positive relationships between effectiveness and EI (self-awareness). This relationship was supported for interactive skills in the US and UK samples and for controlling skills in the Malaysian and UK samples. Self-awareness of different managerial skills varied by culture. It appears that in low power distance (PD) cultures such as the United States and United Kingdom, self-awareness of interactive skills may be crucial relative to effectiveness whereas in high PD cultures, such as Malaysia self-awareness of controlling skills may be crucial relative to effectiveness. These findings are discussed along with the implications for future research.