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ItemActive Listening, Aural Imagination, and 19th-Century Program Music: An In-Class "Experiment"(RILM, 2014) Ziegel, Aaron; Towson University. Department of Music[From essay]: When teaching 19th-century Western art music to both music majors and general-education students alike, the debate between advocates for program music versus proponents of absolute music is a fundamental component in a student’s understanding of the Romantic era. The period’s composers and music critics, as we well know, had plenty to say about the topic, and this primary source commentary provides one pillar of that understanding. Analysis of music examples makes for a second pillar. But experiencing precisely how music, through aural means alone, can convey to its auditors an image, feeling, or idea of something remains a much more elusive notion. This essay will share one possible in-class approach to exploring that topic—an approach that aims to foster a link between a conceptual understanding drawn from various primary-source quotations and an engaged listening activity that encourages students to “see with the mind’s ear” (if you will pardon the mixed metaphor). An experience such as this allows students to approach music listening not as a challenge to their patience and attention spans, but rather it suggests, as Charles D. Morrison has argued, “that engaged music listening is itself a form of ‘creative activity’” ItemAre disability images in advertising becoming bold and daring? An analysis of prominent themes in US and UK campaigns(Ohio State University Libraries, 2006) Haller, Beth A.; Ralph, Sue; Towson University. Department of Mass Communications and Communication Studies.Advertisements featuring disabled people have become more noticeable in the United States (USA) and Great Britain/United Kingdom (UK) in the last decade. The focus of this article is to qualitatively analyze a selection of these advertisements since 1999 to understand how disability currently is being used within advertising messages. The goal of the analyses are to understand whether advertising images remained static in their messages or are expanding their messages to show a variety of disability images. The findings revealed that some improvements have occurred in advertising images of disability, such as the themes of empowerment (Cingular) and the themes of disability pride and inclusion (Doritos, Marks & Spencer, and HSBC). However, several ads still embrace antiquated themes that continue to stigmatize disabled people, such as the Nuveen, HealthExtras, and Bank of America ads. These themes convey underlying messages that disabled people are broken and in need of repair, are awash in tragedy, or are Supercrips, who are put on pedestals for just living their lives. ItemBeyond the talk-back: performing autoethnography and the functions of critique(University of California Press, 2017-10-26) Rowe, Desireé D.; Towson University. Department of Mass Communication and Communication StudiesReflecting on my own experiences with talk-backs and audience responses, this manuscript uses metaphor to map the functions of autoethnographic performance critique. Through an exploration of vulnerability within performance, I turn to three key areas: theoretical accessibility, performativity, and accountability in order to chart how to engage in critique of performance autoethnography. ItemCan online buddies and bandwagon cues enhance user participation in online health communities?(Elsevier, 2014-08) Kim, Hyang-Sook; Sundar, S. Shyam; Towson University. Department of Mass CommunicationIndividuals are more likely to obtain information and support from online health communities than offer help to other users (Fox & Jones, 2009; Preece, Nonnecke, & Andrews, 2004). The current study attempts to resolve this problem of under-contribution by proposing two theory-based persuasive strategies—a specific request in the form of an online buddy and collective community feedback in the form of bandwagon cues. A 2 (online buddy: absence vs. presence) by 2 (bandwagon cues: weak vs. strong) between-participants experiment tested the effects of these strategies on psychological outcomes, including perceived responsibility, social presence, sense of community, and perceived helpfulness, as well as their posting attitudes, posting intentions, and website attitudes, across two sessions. Contrary to expectations, we found that the assignment of online buddies in a health community forum leads to negative psychological and behavioral consequences, especially in the absence of strong community feedback. Furthermore, the online buddy feature interacts with bandwagon cues to activate different cognitive processes, leading to differential interpretation of the meanings of those bandwagon cues—either as compliments (in the presence of online buddy) or as unreliable feedback (in the absence of online buddy). Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. ItemCharacterising social structural and linguistic behaviours of subgroup interactions: a case of online health communities for postpartum depression on Facebook(Inderscience, 2020-07-10) Pak, Jinie; Kim, Hyang-Sook; Rhee, Eun Soo; Towson University. Department of Mass CommunicationOnline health communities (OHCs) have become a major source of sharing knowledge and social support for people with health concerns. The present paper aimed to extend the previous understanding of community dynamics of two types of members, contributors and lurkers, in OHCs for postpartum depression (PPD). Multi-level analyses were conducted to identify subgroup formation and different roles of members and their interaction patterns within subgroups. Specifically, social structural behaviours in OHCs on Facebook were analysed at both network and node levels in addition to members’ sentiment and linguistic behaviours which were analysed in light of members’ roles and structural behaviours. Results suggest that structural as well as sentiment and linguistic behaviours of members in OHCs for PPD varied across different groups and roles. While contributors tended to be highly influential as information/support givers, lurkers still formed subgroups to seek for support and information. These findings not only articulated the underlying mechanism of community networks and subgroup formation in OHCs for PPD, but also shed light on ways of facilitating prosperity and sustainability of OHCs. ItemCollege students’ motivations for using podcasts(National Association for Media Literacy Education, 2016-01-08) Chung, Mun-Young; Kim, Hyang-Sook; Towson University. Department of Mass CommunicationDespite potential benefits of podcasts for college education, little research has examined students’ psychological drives for using podcasts. To explore the relationship between the use of podcasts and college students’appreciation of them, this study investigated students’ motivations, attitudes and behaviors with regard topodcasts use including their learning environment. Based on a survey with 636 college students, this study foundthat six dimensions of motivations were prominent for podcasts use: (1) voyeurism/social interaction/companionship, (2) entertainment/relaxation/arousal, (3) education/information, (4) pastime/escape, (5) habit, and (6) convenience. In particular, motivations catering to relationship consolidation, excitement and educational achievement better explained the actual use of podcasts as well as students’ appreciation than other motivations identified. In addition, students’ attachment to the medium is a strong predictor of their podcasts use and gratification. Students also used podcasts to satisfy their fashion motivation. Theoretical and practicalimplications of using podcasts for digital literacy in college education were discussed. ItemCommunicating art, virtually!: psychological effects of technological affordances in a virtual museum(Taylor & Francis, 2015-05-27) Sundar, S. Shyam; Go, Eun; Kim, Hyang-Sook; Zhang, Bo; Towson University. Department of Mass CommunicationMuseums lean heavily on recent developments in communication technologies to create an authentic experience for online visitors of its galleries. This study examines whether three specific affordances of communication technology—customization, interactivity, and navigability—can provide the personal, social, and physical contexts, respectively, that are necessary for ensuring an enjoyable museum experience. A 2 (presence vs. absence of customizable gallery) × 2 (presence vs. absence of live-chat with others) × 2 (presence vs. absence of 3D navigational tool) between– subjects factorial experiment (N = 126) found that although each affordance is associated with distinct psychological benefits (customization with sense of agency and control, interactivity with reciprocity, and navigability with perceived reality), combining them on the same interface tends to undermine these benefits. In addition, power usage moderates the effectiveness of each affordance on the interface. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. ItemThe Commutation Test and Chris Bacon’s Score for Source Code as a Framework for Film Music Pedagogy(2018-05-10) Ziegel, Aaron; Towson University. Department of MusicThis article lays out a theoretical foundation for the use of the commutation test as a film music-based pedagogical tool. The main titles sequence of Source Code (2011, directed by Duncan Jones) provides an effective example for classroom use, in which alternative musical accompaniments serve to reshape the viewing experience. An analysis of Chris Bacon’s original score for the sequence, supported by primary-source evidence, strengthens the instructional potential of this activity. Additionally, this essay provides a brief technical primer on how to prepare video clips for use in classroom teaching. ItemContent & character: Disability publications in the late 1990s(Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication, 2000) Haller, Beth A.; Towson University. Department of Mass CommunicationDisability publications fit with other types of alternative or dissident media in U.S. society because they advocate on behalf of a distinctive U.S. group, which has come together to form a political and social community. These publications cover the issues that affect that community vigorously. They also fall into this category of media because of the historic discrimination and exclusion people with disabilities have faced in society, as well as the negative stereotyping they have received from the mainstream news media. Many people with disabilities have been isolated throughout U.S. history because of the architectural, occupational, communication, and educational barriers in society, but they still have played an integral part in the social and political development of the country. Their publications illustrate this. However, the publications of this community have never received much attention in mass media studies, even though many disability publications have a long history in the United States, with some that have been ongoing since 1907. Few mass communication scholars have analyzed disability publications at all or in any systematic Way. Therefore, this exploratory study fills that void by content analyzing a sample of the disability magazines, newspapers, and newsletters currently being produced (N=134). By assessing demographic characteristics of the publications, as well as looking as content issues, this study hypothesizes that many disability publications fall into Kessler's alternative press model of dissident media. ItemThe critical lede: new media and ecological balance(Taylor & Francis, 2012-01) Myers, W. Benjamin; Rowe, Desireé D.; Towson University. Department of Mass Communication and Communication StudiesAs co-hosts of the podcast The Critical Lede (TCL), we find ourselves at a moment where new media projects are bursting onto the scene of not only communication/ performance studies but also all fields of academe. That we find ourselves in the midst of this explosion calls for reflexivity on the potentials that new media projects open as well as problematics that might ensue as we sort out how to keep our traditional print/stage heritage vibrant while simultaneously making room for scholarship that works outside of this framework. ItemDigital discourses: implementing technology within the public speaking classroom(Indiana University, 2013-06) Rowe, Desireé D.; Davis, Andrea M.; Towson University. Department of Mass Communications and Communication StudiesIn this semester-long project, students will be able to utilize various digital tools to meet four outcomes within the Public Speaking classroom. First, we are focused on the student’s ability to demonstrate critical consumption of media technologies. Second, students should use these technologies to narrate and curate current events. Third, technology should not hinder collaboration; rather we are seeking to utilize technology to encourage collaborative efforts that may have been impossible prior to the implementation of the technology. Finally, we place an emphasis on the student’s investment in digital citizenship. ItemThe (dis)appearance of Up your ass: Valerie Solanas as abject revolutionary(Taylor & Francis, 2013-03-14) Rowe, Desireé D.; Towson University. Department of Mass Communication and Communication StudiesThrough performative writing and using Cixous' notion of écriture feminine, this piece explores how the archival and treatment of Valerie Solanas' ‘lost’ manuscript Up Your Ass marks her as an abject body. Further, this piece critiques the treatment of Solanas' works as typical of radical feminist activists. ItemDisability Rights on the Public Agenda: Elite News Media Coverage of The Americans With Disabilities Act(Temple University, 1995) Haller, Beth A.; Towson University, Department of Mass Communication and Communication StudiesThis dissertation undertook a content analysis of U.S. elite newspapers and the three major news magazines (N=524), news photographs (N=171), and TV network news (N =24) to understand how the news media presented the 1990 Americans with Disabilities Act The Act embodies a new civil rights issue that sharply contrasts with stereotypes and myths about people with disabilities Therefore, this study could assess how the news media juxtapose the newer disability rights perspective relative to older stereotypes of the disability experience and competing perspectives such as U S business interests. This study also assists in the understanding of the news media role in characterizing a new issue on the public's agenda. The findings show that the elite media covered the ADA in the obligatory way it has covered much major federal legislation. Only rarely did media further contextualize and expand ADA information. The coverage of the ADA illustrates that the notion of disability rights is only making a moderate amount of headway into news media representations. However, when they did do stories, the news media did a good Job of casting the ADA as a civil rights act. But they also presented the norms of U.S. society and the business community by looking often at the upfront cost of the Act, as opposed to long-term cost savings the Act might provide. But the news media misrepresented disability in incidence, race, and gender They sought out the visible disabilities as examples and missed the fact that more people have hidden disabilities. They portrayed disability in terms of the white middle class, which reflects the primary composition of the disability rights movement. The nature of the ADA story, however, did not allow the media to use the traditional stereotypes, which present people with disabilities as medical problems or as superhuman. The media accepted a progressive frame of minority group status for people with disabilities because the federal government gave it to them. And because the governmental rhetoric had been fashioned by activists from the disability community, the message of civil rights for people with disabilities flowed through the media. ItemEffects of fear appeals on communicating potential health risks of unregulated dietary supplements to college students(Taylor & Francis, 2014-08-30) Kim, Hyang-Sook; Sheffield, Donna; Almutairi, Talal M.; Towson University. Department of Mass CommunicationBackground: Fear appeals are commonly used in health communication to reduce risk. It is not clear, however, whether familiarity with a health topic can lessen the threat intended. The use of unregulated dietary supplements among young adults is one such area that needs study. Purpose: The study examined the effect of fear appeals on self-protective behavior when college students were informed of the risks of consuming the dietary supplement creatine. It focused on students’ responses to fear appeals that varied depending on their familiarity with the product. Methods: Students were assigned to one of 3 groups based on familiarity with creatine. A total of 121 college students viewed advertisements depicting creatine consumption side effects, followed by the main questionnaire including perceived risk, attitudes, and behavioral intention measures. Results: Fear appeal messages were most effective for those least familiar with creatine. Discussion: Familiarity based on previous experience is a factor that must be considered when presenting threatening health information. Translation to Health Education Practice: Health educators and practitioners should inform young adults about risks and proper consumption of dietary supplements before they develop a strong disposition toward the product without accurate knowledge of proper dose and potential side effects. ItemThe effects of open captions in a medical drama on the acquisition of medical terminology about chronic health conditions related to physical injury(Taylor & Francis, 2019-08-14) Kim, Hyang-Sook; Kim, Kyongseok; Towson University. Department of Mass CommunicationBackground: Despite previous efforts to improve health literacy through entertainment media, current practice seems to address only a few public health topics. Purpose: We examined the impact of supplementary open captions about medical terminology related to physical injuries that might lead to chronic health conditions on the acquisition and retention of relevant information presented in a medical drama. Methods: We conducted a two-group, between-subjects experiment (no open captions vs. open captions) with 150 adult participants to measure how open captions might help viewers retain medical information without disrupting their enjoyment of the storyline. Results: The open captions helped viewers retain the terms and their definitions without disrupting narrative transportation to the events in the episode. Discussion: As long as the open-captioned medical information was seamlessly woven into the storyline of the episode, it did not prevent the viewers from appreciating the dramatic content of the show. Translation to Health Education Practice: Health educators are encouraged to collaborate with media producers to implement open captions for health and medical information rather than simply monitoring the accuracy of health and medical topics featured in television shows. ItemEkkreinen: a stop motion capsule performance(2018-10-01) Rowe, Desireé D.; Towson University. Department of Mass Communication and Communication Studies"Until the day of when I sat patiently on the hospital bed with tears streaming down my face. My anxiety and panic and had returned for an appearance right before I was to be wheeled to surgery. I saw the room begin to blur at the edges not from the anesthesia, but from the shivers of panic swirling through me. I felt insignificant and disposable in the giant medical industrial complex. I was scared." ItemEnacting the nation on stage: styles, subjects, and themes in American opera librettos of the 1910s(National Opera Association, 2009-06) Ziegel, Aaron; Towson University. Department of MusicThe article focuses on six staged operas of 1910s with national style. Topics discussed include operas with a theme of racial encounter such as "Natoma" by Victor Herbert, opera "Azora" by Henry Hadley showing the fall of Aztec empire of emperor Montezuma, picturization of Indians in American culture in all the operas, use of dramaturgy adopted from the Europeans for the characters of the opera and the libretto problem faced by the operas. ItemErnest Bloch's "exotic" shofar: Jewish identity in Proclamation for trumpet and orchestra(2018-01-19) Klaus, Aaron; Engelke, Luis; Towson University. Department of MusicRichard Wagner argued in his notoriously anti-Semitic 1850 essay, Das Judentum in der Musik (Judaism in Music), that composers must descend to their racial roots in order to achieve universality in art. This idea was inherently problematic for Jewish composers, who could not escape Wagner’s extensive influence on European music yet lacked a coherent set of racial bonds. Despite the emancipation of Jews in Europe throughout the nineteenth century, they largely retained outsider status in this era. Accordingly, Jewish composers who endeavored to be accepted into the pantheon of “great” European artists had to renounce their Jewish identity in the public sphere. Ernest Bloch, however, was the first composer to attempt to outwardly express his Jewish identity in his idiomatically European art music. While Bloch’s large-scale religious works have garnered much attention, his lesser-known Proclamation for Trumpet and Orchestra serves as an ideal model for understanding the Jewish aspects of his music. A biographical sketch of Bloch puts this piece in context, focusing on both the evolution of his racially Jewish musical style as influenced by Wagnerian ideology, and on Bloch’s relationship with Samuel Laderman, to whom he dedicated the piece. Little research on Laderman exists, but his correspondence with Bloch, preserved at the Hargrett Rare Book and Manuscript Library of the University of Georgia, reveals the importance of this figure in Bloch’s life. Previous research holds that the premiere of Proclamation took place on November 13, 1957, with Charles Bruck conducting the Orchestre Colonne, and Ludovic Vaillant as the soloist. However, previously-undiscovered announcements in the CBC Times and Globe and Mail indicate that “a CBC Montreal orchestra” conducted by Alexander Brott actually performed the piece on February 15, 1956. Finally, an investigation of the historical sources of Bloch’s characteristic Jewish markers in Proclamation including cantorial-like melodies, augmented intervals, open fourths and fifths, and shofar “calls”—informs a theoretical analysis of the work. These markers allowed him to justify the “Jewish” label on his music while also providing a means for exoticizing Jewish culture in an attempt to make his art palatable to the European majority. However, filtering the markers through the lens of a modern-day understanding of racial essentialism raises the question of whether they truly represented a national Jewish art or simply his conception of Judaism. ItemExamining psychological effects of source cues and social plugins on a product review website(Elsevier, 2015-08) Kim, Hyang-Sook; Brubaker, Pamela Jo; Seo, Kiwon; Towson University. Department of Mass CommunicationThis study examines the psychological effects of heuristic cues on a product review website to gain a better understanding of online agency. A between-participants experiment of 458 college students confirmed the formation of more positive attitudes toward a product review website when an expert rather than a computer/website served as the source of product review information, specifically when the expert source was accompanied by a rating of four stars vs. one star. A product review authored by other users also induced more favorable attitudes toward the website when it was presented with a higher level of star ratings than a lower one. The study also revealed perceived authority and bandwagon heuristics mediated the relationship between the presence of social plugins and favorable attitudes toward the website via credibility perceptions. Findings not only underscored the power of the authority and bandwagon cues when users make quick judgments on product review sites but also discovered a theoretical path that explained the role of social plugins—a seal of credibility—on e-commerce sites. Theoretical and practical implications are also discussed for designing information-based websites. ItemFactors influencing the perceived credibility of diet-nutrition information web sites(Elsevier, 2016-05) Jung, Eun Hwa; Walsh-Childers, Kim; Kim, Hyang-Sook; Towson University. Department of Mass CommunicationThis study investigated the factors that inﬂuence the perceived credibility of web sites providing diet and nutrition information. Undergirded by the dual-processing models (i.e., Elaboration Likelihood Model and Heuristic Systematic Model), an online experiment (N 575) was conducted to examine how perceptions of online diet and nutrition information credibility are inﬂuenced by source expertise cues and message accuracy; the effects of prior knowledge and interest in the information also were assessed. Results showed that message accuracy increased perceived credibility of the web site regardless of the level of source expertise. However, source expertise had an important effect on website credibility perceptions among those who exhibited low prior knowledge. Finally, message accuracy had a greater impact on web site credibility among those who were highly involved in the issue compared to those who were less involved. The ﬁndings increase our understanding of the factors that impact individuals’ processing of online diet and nutrition information and suggest elements practitioners should consider including to create the most effective online sources for diet and nutrition information.