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- ItemThe 510(k) Inventory Tool: A Regulatory Tool For Use In Medical Device Development(2019-01) Borek, Mary Lisa; Giardina, Steve Ph.D.; Smith, Oney Ph.D.; Steele, David D.V.M.; Graduate School; Master of Science in Biomedical ScienceDesigning and developing medical devices is a complex undertaking with significant opportunities, dependencies, and risks for the stakeholders. This capstone project explores the concept of developing a tool for the regulatory professional with a goal of improving both the quality of regulatory engagement in medical device development and product development efficiency, specifically in cases where the 510(k) FDA regulatory approval process is being used. This is accomplished by creating a checklist tool, the 510(k) Inventory Tool, utilizing published data about known 510(k) submission deficiencies and post-market device reports, then integrating these checklists into appropriate points in the medical device development process, leveraging traditional phase gate project methodologies. By exercising the 510(k) Inventory Tool within the medical device development process, the regulatory affairs professional would have a checklist tool to facilitate project team engagement, to generate stage-appropriate regulatory discussion, and to develop measured strategies for project risk mitigation during the development lifecycle.
- ItemA FIELD EXPERIMENT: THE EFFECT OF INTRODUCED LIGHT POLLUTION ON LIGHTENING BUGS (COLEOPTERA: LAMPYRIDAE) IN THE PIEDMONT REGION OF MARYLAND(2015-05) Costin, Kevin J.; Hood College Biology; Biomedical and Environmental ScienceCurrently, lampyridae species are believed to be in decline worldwide. Many reasons have been proposed to determine the cause of the decline, such as habitat destruction and pesticide use. The purpose of this study was to determine if light pollution could also be a cause of the decline. Light pollution is believed to be a cause of a decline in lampyridae populations because nocturnal males use the flash pattern and frequency to locate females of the same species. To test this hypothesis, I experimentally introduced a light source in grasslands adjacent to a forest edge. I then recorded the flash frequency before and after the light introduction and found a significant decline in the number of flashes per minute exhibited by lampyridae. Lampyridae play an important role in their ecosystems by controlling agricultural pests, so light pollution should be examined in attempts to reduce their decline.
- ItemAcquisition or Theft: Civil Asset Forfeiture in Pennsylvania(2017-04) Reese, Ben; Tucker-Worgs, Tamelyn; Hood College Political Science; Hood College Departmental HonorsOn a drive through the streets of Philadelphia, PA, Nasir Geiger had just cashed his paycheck which netted him $580 cash in his pocket. Leaving the bank, Nasir was flagged down by police under suspicion of drug dealing. Then the police searched his vehicle but did not find any drugs or anything illegal. Despite this, the Philadelphia police seized his vehicle and his $580 cash under pretenses that Nasir was using his car to commit crimes. It did not matter Nasir had just cashed his paycheck or that he had a clean criminal record, he was booked in jailed. It did not even matter that he did not have drugs in his vehicle or that he was not a drug user or dealer. Following his arrest, Nasir was released and charges were never filed. Nevertheless, he was released to walk home penniless. Despite never having been convicted of a crime, Nasir was legally stripped of his pay and vehicle he required for work. Nasir's $8,400 is only one small part of a $5 billion a year business of civil asset forfeiture (Ingraham). Furthermore, only a few miles down the road, outside Philadelphia city limits, civil asset forfeiture is almost unheard of. Philadelphia, PAhas the largest incidence of civil asset forfeiture in the entire country. The city has double the amount of money seized in civil asset forfeiture cases as Los Angeles, CA and New York, NY combined, even though both are larger cities (Forbes). This practice of civil asset forfeiture has stemmed from the War on Drugs. The War on Drugs consists of many criminal justice policies and public health programs that treat drug addiction and drug sales as a criminal justice issue. The War on Drugs has been plagued by decades with racial disparities. The vast array of racial disparities found in the criminal justice system are found when examining civil asset forfeiture. When examining civil asset forfeiture in one state, like Pennsylvania, it becomes clear that civil seizures are more prevalent in urban communities of color. In Pennsylvania, the rural, mostly white, conservative, and working class areas, tend to have few civil seizures, but the more racially diverse urban centers have huge amounts of civil asset forfeiture.
- ItemAgainst Objectivity: Philosophy and the Humanities(2022-04-13) Benchoff, Kate; Angello, Aaron; Hood College Arts and Humanities; Hood College HumanitiesThis collection of works examines how philosophical approaches have long been coded as "rational" and "objective" (and "male"), creating a rift between philosophy and other fields of study in the humanities and privileging masculine modes of thinking over feminine. The central argument is that first, philosophy doesn't have to be objective to be meaningful (as in the case of existentialism), and second, that insisting on objective interpretations of things like art and literature can result in a sort of "othering" of the work itself. Objective (formalist) approaches to art, for example, often depend on dismantling the work into discrete parts to be analyzed rather than examining the work as a whole. All of the articles in this collection deal in some way with Self and Other, either from a Cartesian perspective or from a Sartrean perspective, and analyze literature or art criticism through these lenses.
- ItemAll in All, it was Just Another Brick in the Wall: Determining the Efficacy and Legality of the Mexican Border Wall(2017-05) Jines, Lydia; Judson, Janis; Hood College Law & Criminal Justice; Hood College Departmental HonorsThe debate concerning the efficacy and legality of interstate barriers has experienced a revival as a result of the polarizing campaign rhetoric of Donald Trump. Although the concept of a Mexican Border Wall is not an entirely new concept in American conservative politics, Trump has presented a unique perspective on the necessity and feasibility of the Wall. Early campaign promises of the new administration suggested that “the Wall” would be paid for by the Mexican government. While Mexico’s paying for the Wall is no longer a promise Trump is capable of making, the Administration continues to argue for the construction of the barrier along the border. As a whole, the Trump Administration has faced early opposition to many proposals concerning immigration policy. Continued pressure has been placed on vows to build the Wall, prompting the inclusion of the barrier in this year’s proposed budget. This paper seeks to explore the reality facing any such construction in terms of efficacy and legality of interstate barriers. Historical barriers such as the Great Wall of China and the Berlin Wall can be used to draw conclusions about the likely efficacy of the Mexican Border Wall in achieving its desired ends. The Israeli Separation Barrier in the occupied Palestinian Territory demonstrates the application of newly-developing international legal principles which render interstate barriers illegal. Finally, the historical obstacles facing previous American presidential administrations in the construction of similar barriers along the Mexican border suggest that such a venture is unrealistic and increasingly unnecessary in the face of new methods of unlawful immigration. This paper argues that while undocumented immigrants continue making their way into the country, recent evidence demonstrates that the construction of a wall would be ineffective to stop the influx (Warren & Kerwin 2017: 124). Legally, opinions by international courts suggest that the Mexican Border would be a violation of international law (International Court of Justice 2004)
- ItemAmbidextrous Project Management: The Influences of Leadership Styles, Project Management Practices, and Team Characteristics on Creativity and Innovation(2020) Crilly, Brian; Jose, Anita; George B. Delaplaine Jr. School of Business; Organizational LeadershipAmbidextrous project management, the ability of project leaders to adapt behaviors and environmental factors to the prevailing project needs, enhances the performance of project teams and project outcomes. Producing unique and novel project deliverables in support of business objectives requires a careful balance of creative problem solving and disciplined implementation. However, individuals are rarely adept at both divergent creative behaviors and convergent implementation behaviors. To address limited research in this area, this study explores how project leaders can leverage ambidextrous project management to enhance project team creativity and project performance. Through surveys administered to 202 project leaders and project team members across a variety of organizations and industries, this study considers the influences of transactional versus transformational leadership, the benefits of plan-driven versus agile project management practices, and the impacts of team size and team experience on creativity and project performance. This study also considers the mediating effects of motivation on those same relationships. Using mediated multiple regression to analyze the survey responses, the results suggest that both transformational and transactional leadership styles play an important role in influencing creativity and project performance. In addition, the findings highlight the importance of a trusting and supportive organizational environment for fostering creative outcomes. Further, the results highlight the positive effect of team experience on efficient and effective project execution. By understanding how leadership styles, project management practices, and team characteristics influence project results, project leaders can adapt these factors to improve the creativity and performance of the project teams they lead.
- ItemANALYSIS OF A RECOMBINANT MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY BY MOLECULAR SIEVING CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS(2006) Kwadwo O. Caesar; Hood College Biology; Biomedical and Environmental ScienceThe rising interest in the use of mAb therapeutics against human diseases has led to the development of more sophisticated analytical methods to detect and quantitate size variants. Although SDS-CE using gel or non-gel based polymer matrices for size-based separation of SDS-protein complexes has the potential to replace SDS-PAGE due to its numerous advantages, more extensive application data is needed. This study investigated the utility of non-gel polymer solutions of PEG, PEO and dextran as matrices for the separation of SDS-mAb complexes in a size-dependent manner in fused-silica capillaries. The 5-10% PEG and 3% PEO solutions unsuitable for use as separation matrices in barefused silica capillaries worked well in the neutral fused silica capillary. The 7.5 and 10% dextran solutions were suitable for use as separation matrices in both bare and neutral fused silica capillaries. The separations on the neutral fused silica capillary proved superior to corresponding separations performed on the bare-fused silica capillary.
- ItemAnalysis of Acetate Ester Production in Wild Yeast to Identify Strains that Improve Flavor in Commercial FermentationPowell, Katie; Darby, Miranda; Biomedical and Environmental; Biomedical Science (M.S.)Craft beer has become a huge industry and every brewer is seeking a flavor blend that sets them apart. Small differences in flavor profiles in beer have been accomplished by varying ingredients, temperature, pitching rate, and top pressure, but differences in yeast gene expression may have a larger impact on flavor. The enzyme alcohol acetyl transferase I (AATase I) is encoded by ATF1 and catalyzes the reaction that produces acetate esters from ethanol and acetyl-CoA. The acetate esters have distinct attributes that are detected by smell and taste, and minute fluctuations in concentration can positively or negatively affect the flavor of the final product. In order to create commercial brewing strains that produce better tasting beer, we will take two different approaches. In the first approach we will collect yeast from the “wild” to compare to industrial strains. In the second approach we will induce mutations in ATF1 and its regulatory sequences to identify variations to generate commercial strains with an improved flavor profile. Our goal is to be able to unearth at least one viable strain for commercial fermentation use that will enhance the flavor of beer.
- ItemAnalysis of Metabolic Pathways in Pancreatic Cancer Stem Cells(2018-04-06) Peach, Amanda; Beyer, Rachel; Biomedical Science; Biomedical ScienceCancer stem cells are now thought to play a critical role in cancer relapse and metastasis, therefore finding a way to target these cancer stem cells is crucial to cancer treatment. One such way to target the cancer stem cells is with drugs that target their metabolic phenotype. Cancer stem cells could have either a glycolytic or oxidative phosphorylation phenotype, there is not conclusive evidence on which phenotype cancer stem cells have. This proposed project will determine the metabolic phenotype of both the pancreatic cancer stem cells as well as the differentiated cancer cells. The data from the metabolic profiling will determine which drugs to use to treat the cancer stem cells. A viability assay will then be performed to determine the effectiveness of the drugs in targeting the cancer stem cells. This project will help determine the correct metabolic phenotype of pancreatic cancer stem cells as well as testing drugs that target the metabolic phenotype on their ability to kill cancer stem cells.
- ItemANALYSIS OF THE DNA :BINDING PROPERTIES OF BACTERIOPHAGE P1 Cl REPRESSOR AND BOF MODULATOR PROTEINS 'UTILIZING A COMPARATIVE SELEX TECHNIQUE(2001-03) Buhrman, Gregory; Hood College Biology; Biomedical and Environmental ScienceBacteriophage P1 cycles between lytic and lysogenic states upon infection of a host bacteria. P1 maintains its lysogenic stage by suppressing gene expression from several lytic genes. Bacteriophage P1 C1 repressor protein binds to a family of operator sequences to regulate gene expression. Protein binding to these operator sites is regulated in a unique way by the P1 Bof protein. Bof protein enhances the DNA binding capability of C1 repressor by forming a ternary complex with Cl repressor and its cognate DNA. These DNA binding interactions are characterized by looking at the variability in C1 repressor binding sites utilizing a partially randomized oligonucleotide library based on a sequence logo constructed from an alignment of the natural C1 Operator sites and recombinant GST(glutathione S-Transferase) fusion C1 repressor and Bof proteins for SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential enrichment) experiments. The consensus sequence of oligonucleotides selected is A6TTGCICTAATA5. Palindromes are not important for binding, as previously hypothesized. A different hypothesis, emphasizing the role of DNA bending is discussed.
- ItemAn Analysis of the Effectiveness of HUD Assisted Housing in its Mission to Decrease Wealth Disparities(2022-04-24) Rowles, Ashlee; Tucker-Worgs, Tamelyn; Hood College Department of Political Science; Hood College Departmental HonorsThis research project is focused on the Section 8 Housing Choice Voucher and its effectiveness through both a political approach and an economic context. The Housing Choice Voucher Program comes most usually in two forms, one being a housing voucher participants used to find affordable housing in the private market, and the other form being public housing projects which are low-cost residential neighborhoods funded by the policy and located within housing authorities. Both are federally funded yet locally managed initiatives that provide low rent affordable housing for residents who qualify. Ideally, this “safety net” catches families unable to afford market rate rental housing or mortgages, giving them opportunities for economic upward mobility. My research shows that when using a multidimensional approach that includes wraparound services, Section 8 housing assistance can create a truly transformative experience for program participates. My research project employs case study analysis to understand why particular section 8 initiatives utilize this multi-dimensional approach to better support their residents, and why others solely offer the reduction of housing costs without any other accompanying support. The difference between these processes of tackling poverty has a different impact, and the limitations of some section 8 initiatives result in less effective support for their residents, overall community, and their own mission of aiding participants to become self-sufficient. With this disparity of support and aid, this research project will focus on what jurisdictions within six different locally managed Section 8 programs are most commonly accompanying this more supportive and impactful iteration of the Section 8 Housing Choice Voucher Program to better understand possible inequalities within the service of this policy.
- ItemAn Analysis of the Impact of Social Media on Student-Athlete Mental Health(2023-04-24) Armstrong, Hannah; Goldenbach, Alan; English and Communication Arts; Hood College Departmental HonorsDiscussion surrounding mental health has become increasingly relevant and made its way to the forefront of conversations in recent years. On top of this, the emergence of a devastating global pandemic and a transition into a what may be deemed a “new normal” has certainly complicated the lives of many, especially young adults. In addition, prevalence and widespread use of social media has become increasingly common. The research in this paper seeks to discover how social media usage impacts collegiate student-athletes' mental health by analyzing the social media habits of these student-athletes.
- ItemAnalysis of the Stability of Microbial Consortia Grown on Pectin(2017-04) Sellers, Ian; Laufer, Criag; Hood College Biology; Hood College Departmental HonorsBacteria are social organisms that interact within and between other species while simultaneously responding to external stimuli from their surrounding environment (11). Bacterial communities are among the most diverse of ecological communities in that they vary drastically in species composition, niches occupied, and influence on different environments. Understanding the development and implications of these bacterial communities is of great importance, because they not only influence our personal health, but also our surrounding environment. Determining exactly how these communities form is a complex issue that is not completely understood.
- ItemANALYSIS OF THE STRUCTURE AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF PRUNUS NECROTIC RINGSPOT AND APPLE MOSAIC VIRUSES USING MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES(1986-12) Aebig, Joan; Hood College Biology; Hood College Biomedical ScienceMonoclonal antibodies reactive with two ilarviruses, Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) and apple mosaic virus (ApMV) were utilized to determine the structural and biological properties of the viruses. Three monoclonal antibodies (Mabs 1, 2 and 3) which reacted only to ApMV in various ELISA tests were found to bind to conformation independent epitopes which are hidden between or within viral subunits. Three other monoclonal antibodies (Mabs 5, 6 and 7) which reacted only to PNRSV in various ELISA tests were found to bind to conformation dependent, externally located epitopes. One monoclonal antibody, Mab 4, which reacted with both viruses was found to bind to a conformation dependent, partialiy hidden epitope on ApMV, but a conformation independent, external ,Titope on PNRSV. Further, the three ApMV-specific antibodies reacted with viral coat protein in Western blots. None of the three PNRSV-specific antibodies reacted with viral coat protein in Western blots. Mab 4, however, did react with PNRSV coat protein but not ApMV coat protein in Western blots. Fragments of PNRSV coat protein were generated by proteolysis, and, in Western blots, all were found to be bound by Mab 4. Thus, attempts to isolate a specific polypeptide containing the epitope were unsuccessful. In neutralization of infectivity studies, Mab 4 blocked PNRSV infectivity although the antibody did not precipitate the virus in Ouchterlony double diffusion tests. This suggests that Mab 4 may bind to an epitope located in a region of the coat protein necessary for infection. Although not yet examined for PNRSV, a characteristic of other ilarviruses is coat protein dependent initiation of infection, where coat protein, or a subgenomic RNA which codes for coat protein, is required for the RNAs to be infectious. Thus, Mab 4 may be a useful probe for studying this process in PNRSV and other ilarviruses.
- ItemAnalyzing Egg Laying Behaviors in C. elegans Based on Bacterial Food Sources(2016-04) Jones, Georgette; Hood College Biology; Hood College Departmental HonorsCaenorhabditis elegans is a non-parasitic nematode that feeds on soil bacteria. It has been shown that these organisms prefer to consume strains of E. coli bacteria, which are Gram negative, over strains of Bacillus bacteria, which are Gram positive. It was hypothesized that the food preference of the nematodes relates to the survival of the fittest concept, so that worms who consume Gram negative bacteria have greater reproductive success than worms who consume Gram positive bacteria. To test this hypothesis, the nematodes were fed two types of Gram negative bacteria and one type of Gram positive bacteria, and reproductive success was measured as the number of eggs the worms could lay after a specific time period. The results showed that the number of eggs laid by the worms fed Gram positive bacteria was significantly less than the number of eggs laid by worms fed Gram negative bacteria. In addition, a gene expression study using real-time PCR to amplify two egg-laying genes and two dauer-formation genes was conducted. Three of the four genes investigated are part of the TGFβ superfamily of genes that are known to be involved in many stages of reproduction and embryogenesis. The results showed that worms fed Gram negative bacteria had a higher expression of the genes tested than the worms fed Gram positive bacteria, concluding that reproductive abilities of nematodes can be affected by a food source. The mechanism by which bacterial food source affects reproduction needs further investigation, but these data indicate there may be a link between the immune system, diet, and reproduction.
- ItemANTI-GLUTEN SYNTHETIC NOTCH RECEPTOR T CELLS FOR THE TREATMENT OF CELIAC DISEASE(2021-04) Clark, Benjamin; Laufer, Craig; Hood College Biology; Biomedical ScienceCeliac disease is a complex autoimmune disorder affecting approximately 0.5-1.7% of the general population. Currently, there are no treatments for Celiac disease aside from a lifelong adherence to a strict gluten-free diet. There is a largely unmet need for alternative treatment options for patients due to the difficulty in maintaining such a diet. Recent advancements in understanding the underlying Celiac disease pathology have identified IL-15 as a key player driving disease morbidity. Synthetic Notch receptors (synNotch) are chimeric Notch receptors in which the extracellular sensing domain and intracellular response domain can be changed to sense and respond to a custom signal. The customizability of these receptors allows for the engineering of cells that can sense a chosen target and induce a chosen response. Here, I propose engineering a synNotch receptor capable of sensing immunogenic gluten peptides and linking its function to the production of the peptide, BNZ-2. BNZ-2 is a γc cytokine receptor antagonist that selectively inhibits IL-15 and IL-21 signaling without impacting IL-2 signaling. I propose engineering T cells to express this synNotch BNZ-2 receptor to disrupt improper IL-15 upregulation driving Celiac disease morbidity.
- ItemAnti-Muslim Rhetoric in the American Media: Sustaining a Culture of Fear(2017-04) Hassaine, Phoebe; Robinson, Carin; Hood College Political Science; Hood College Departmental HonorsIslamophobia is a concept that has been instilled in society by means of historical reinforcement of stereotypes surrounding Islam and Muslims. This has consequently created a pervasive fear of “terrorism” that has consumed the United States prior to 9/11 and, especially, after the event. Coincidentally, this sensationalized hysteria exploded right after the perpetration of 9/11, evident in a poll conducted on the night of the 9/11 attacks which found that 58% of Americans were “somewhat” or “very” worried that a member of their family might become a terrorist attack victim. The British think tank, Runnymede Trust, lists eight characteristics of Islamophobia that identify the assumptions Westerners make about Islam.
- ItemArt et Identité : La Présence de la Culture Juive dans la France médiévaleReel, Marisa; Course, Didier; Morris, April; Hood College Department of Global Languages and Cultures; Hood College Departmental HonorsThis paper explores Hebrew illuminated manuscripts created in 13th and 14th century France. It looks at the cultural, political, and social environment in which these manuscripts were created and how they may have been used as outlets to express Jewish identity in a Christian world.
- ItemThe Art of Industry(2023) Hampson, Emily; Martinsen, Chaz; Kormeluk, Natalia; Lard, James; Hood College Art and Archeology; Hood College Ceramic Arts"An industrialist is an artist" -John Cotton Dana Is this true? It seems that much of the population believes that it is not, and that art and industry are not only distinct categories but are at odds with each other. I believe that those holding this opinion do so largely based on a misunderstanding of the processes that go into manufacturing. There is a belief that, since the industrial revolution, people are no longer involved in manufacturing and that machines do everything. How can it be art if it was made by a machine? Another reason for the misconception is that, even when made aware of the human efforts that go into manufacturing processes, it is the “unskilled” labor of an assembly line that is seen. How can it be art if no one person is the “artist”? But, if you trace the steps backwards, you will realize the artist is the one who orchestrated all the moving parts: machines, people, molds, tools, materials, prototypes, and designs to all come together to make the process which creates the product. This is “the art of industry.”
- ItemAspects of Slavery in Maryland (From Its Beginning to Before the Civil War)(1977-05-13) Anderson, Margherita; Hood College History; History Seminar