ATP and Odor Mixture Activate TRPM5-Expressing Microvillous Cells and Potentially Induce Acetylcholine Release to Enhance Supporting Cell Endocytosis in Mouse Main Olfactory Epithelium
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Type of Work16 pages
Citation of Original PublicationFu Z, Ogura T, Luo W and Lin W (2018) ATP and Odor Mixture Activate TRPM5-Expressing Microvillous Cells and Potentially Induce Acetylcholine Release to Enhance Supporting Cell Endocytosis in Mouse Main Olfactory Epithelium. Front. Cell. Neurosci. 12:71. doi: 10.3389/fncel.2018.00071
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The main olfactory epithelium (MOE) functions to detect odor molecules, provide an epithelial surface barrier, and remove xenobiotics from inhaled air. Mechanisms coordinating the activities of different cell types within the MOE to maintain these functions are poorly understood. Previously, we showed that superficially located microvillous cells (MCs) in the MOE expressing transient receptor potential channel M5 (TRPM5) are cholinergic and chemoresponsive and that they play an important role in maintaining odor responses and olfactory-guided behavior under challenging chemical environment. Here we investigated TRPM5-MC activation and subsequent paracrine regulation. Ca²⁺ imaging showed that TRPM5-MCs dose-dependently increase their intracellular Ca²⁺ levels in response to ATP, an important signaling molecule for airway mucociliary movement, and to an odor mixture. Pharmacological examination showed that the ATP responses are primarily mediated by P2X purinergic receptors. Interestingly, using the endocytosis dye pHrodo Red dextran, we found that chemical-activated TRPM5-MCs significantly increase the number of pHrodo-labeled puncta compared to controls without stimulation and compared to cells that do not respond to ATP or to the odor mixture. These results indicate potential vesicle recycling after release of the signaling molecule acetylcholine (ACh). Interestingly, TRPM5 knockout (KO) results in a decrease in ATP-induced pHrodo internalization. We further investigated cholinergic regulation of neighboring supporting cells (SCs). We found that ACh strongly elevates intracellular Ca²⁺ and potentiates pHrodo endocytosis in SCs. The ACh effects are diminished in the presence of atropine or M3 muscarinic receptor antagonist and in SCs lacking M3 receptors. Collectively, these data suggest that TRPM5-MCs may regulate the MOE’s multicellular network activity via cholinergic paracrine signaling for functional maintenance and adaptive plasticity.
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