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dc.contributor.authorMirabal, N.
dc.date.accessioned2020-09-03T17:42:49Z
dc.date.available2020-09-03T17:42:49Z
dc.date.issued2010-08-23
dc.description.abstractWe have gathered optical photometry data from the literature on a large sample of Swift-era gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows including GRBs up to 2009 September, for a total of 76 GRBs, and present an additional three pre-Swift GRBs not included in an earlier sample. Furthermore, we publish 840 additional new photometry data points on a total of 42 GRB afterglows, including large data sets for GRBs 050319, 050408, 050802, 050820A, 050922C, 060418, 080413A, and 080810. We analyzed the light curves of all GRBs in the sample and derived spectral energy distributions for the sample with the best data quality, allowing us to estimate the host-galaxy extinction. We transformed the afterglow light curves into an extinction-corrected z = 1 system and compared their luminosities with a sample of pre-Swift afterglows. The results of a former study, which showed that GRB afterglows clustered and exhibited a bimodal distribution in luminosity space, are weakened by the larger sample. We found that the luminosity distribution of the two afterglow samples (Swift-era and pre-Swift) is very similar, and that a subsample for which we were not able to estimate the extinction, which is fainter than the main sample, can be explained by assuming a moderate amount of line-of-sight host extinction. We derived bolometric isotropic energies for all GRBs in our sample, and found only a tentative correlation between the prompt energy release and the optical afterglow luminosity at 1 day after the GRB in the z = 1 system. A comparative study of the optical luminosities of GRB afterglows with echelle spectra (which show a high number of foreground absorbing systems) and those without, reveals no indication that the former are statistically significantly more luminous. Furthermore, we propose the existence of an upper ceiling on afterglow luminosities and study the luminosity distribution at early times, which was not accessible before the advent of the Swift satellite. Most GRBs feature afterglows that are dominated by the forward shock from early times on. Finally, we present the first indications of a class of long GRBs, which form a bridge between the typical high-luminosity, high-redshift events and nearby low-luminosity events (which are also associated with spectroscopic supernovae) in terms of energetics and observed redshift distribution, indicating a continuous distribution overall.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipWe thank the anonymous referee for helpful comments that improved this paper. D.A.K. thanks C. Guidorzi for helpful comments as well as the GRB 061007 calibration, D. A. Perley for "better-late-than-never" comments, and A. Zeh for the fitting scripts. D.A.K., S.K., and P.F. acknowledge financial support by DFG grant Kl 766/13-2. B.Z. acknowledges NASA NNG 05GC22G and NNG06GH62G for support. The research activity of J.G. is supported by Spanish research programs ESP2005-07714-C03-03 and AYA2004-01515. D.M. thanks the Instrument Center for Danish Astrophysics for support. The Dark Cosmology Centre is funded by the Danish National Science Fundation. A.U. acknowledges travel grant Sigma Xi Grant G2007101421517916. We are grateful to K. Antoniuk (CrAO) for observation of the GRB 060927. A.P. acknowledges the CRDF grant RP1-2394-MO-02 which supported observations in CrAO in 2003-2005. S.S. acknowledges support by a Grant of Excellence from the Icelandic Research Fund. I.B., R.B., I.K. and A.G. express thanks to TÜBİTAK, IKI, and KSU for partial support in using RTT150 (Russian-Turkish 1.5-m telescope in Antalya) with project number 998,999. I.B. and A.G. are grateful for partial support by grants "NSh-4224.2008.2" and "RFBR-09-02-97013-p-povolzh'e-a." M.I. acknowledges the support from the Creative Research Initiative program, No. 2010-0000712, of the Korea Science and Engineering Foundation (KOSEF) funded by the Korea government (MEST). Furthermore, we thank Scott Barthelmy, NASA, for the upkeep of the GCN Circulars, Jochen Greiner, Garching, for the "GRB Big List," Robert Quimby et al. for GRBlog and D. A. Perley et al. for GRBOX. This work made use of data supplied by the UK Swift Science Data Centre at the University of Leicester.en_US
dc.description.urihttps://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/0004-637X/720/2/1513en_US
dc.format.extent46 pagesen_US
dc.genrejournal articlesen_US
dc.identifierdoi:10.13016/m2du9g-6jii
dc.identifier.citationD. A. Kann et al., THE AFTERGLOWS OF SWIFT-ERA GAMMA-RAY BURSTS. I. COMPARING PRE-SWIFT AND SWIFT-ERA LONG/SOFT (TYPE II) GRB OPTICAL AFTERGLOWS, The Astrophysical Journal, 720:1513–1558 (2010), doi:10.1088/0004-637X/720/2/1513en_US
dc.identifier.uri10.1088/0004-637X/720/2/1513
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11603/19585
dc.language.isoen_USen_US
dc.publisherIOPen_US
dc.relation.isAvailableAtThe University of Maryland, Baltimore County (UMBC)
dc.relation.ispartofUMBC Physics Department Collection
dc.relation.ispartofUMBC Joint Center for Earth Systems Technology (JCET)
dc.relation.ispartofUMBC Center for Space Sciences and Technology (CSST) / Center for Research and Exploration in Space Sciences & Technology II (CRSST II)
dc.rightsThis item is likely protected under Title 17 of the U.S. Copyright Law. Unless on a Creative Commons license, for uses protected by Copyright Law, contact the copyright holder or the author.
dc.rightsPublic Domain Mark 1.0*
dc.rightsThis work was written as part of one of the author's official duties as an Employee of the United States Government and is therefore a work of the United States Government. In accordance with 17 U.S.C. 105, no copyright protection is available for such works under U.S. Law
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/mark/1.0/*
dc.titleTHE AFTERGLOWS OF SWIFT-ERA GAMMA-RAY BURSTS. I. COMPARING PRE-SWIFT AND SWIFT-ERA LONG/SOFT (TYPE II) GRB OPTICAL AFTERGLOWSen_US
dc.typeTexten_US


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This item is likely protected under Title 17 of the U.S. Copyright Law. Unless on a Creative Commons license, for uses protected by Copyright Law, contact the copyright holder or the author.
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