The effect of amplitude and timing differences on the listener accuracy of localization for small arms fire
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Type of Workapplication/pdf
vi, 51 pages
DepartmentTowson University. Department of Audiology, Speech-Language Pathology and Deaf Studies
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There are no restrictions on access to this document. An internet release form signed by the author to display this document online is on file with Towson University Special Collections and Archives.
Sound localization allows listeners to create a spatial map of their surrounding environment, clueing them in on what obstacles there are in front and around them. Localization is dependent on several acoustical factors, including azimuth, phase differences, and amplitude differences between the sound source and listener. Soldiers, specifically, rely on these localization abilities and acoustic cues to enhance situational awareness and security. The purpose of this study was to observe whether acoustic manipulations to any of these factors either contributed to or hindered the localization abilities of those listening to the sounds of gunfire from an M4 carbine rifle. Results of this study showed significant differences between different azimuths located from +/- 60 degrees to the listener's immediate right and left. Specifically, the outermost azimuth (-/+60 degrees) was significantly different from the centermost position (0 degrees). Significant differences between the accuracy of muzzle blast and ballistic crack localization in isolation were also found. No significant effect of amplitude and timing differences between the ballistic crack and muzzle blast were found. The final experiment included real-world relationships of varying shooter positions (distance and azimuth). Results were significant for effects of azimuth, however no significant effects were found with relative distance (and therefore timing and amplitude) variation.