Black Holes and Loose Connections in The Global Urban Network.
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DepartmentSchool of Public Policy
Citation of Original PublicationShort, John Rennie. (2004)" Black Holes and Loose Connections in the Global Urban Network." Globalization and World Cities (GaWC) Research Network. 27 Feb. 2002. 6 Dec. 2012 <http://www.lboro.ac.uk/gawc/rb/rb76.html>.
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This paper introduces the concept of black holes and loose connections in the global urban hierarchy. Black holes are defined as large cities, with a population of over 3 million that are not classified as world cities. The paper draws upon a classification that uses advanced producer services as an indicator of world city status. Large, non-world cities are identified and provisional ideas about explaining their position are outlined. Connectivity and population data are used in a simple regression analysis to identify loose connections: cities whose connectivity is less than that predicted by their population.