Using Co-Designing as a Method to Develop COVID-19 Vaccination Information for Low-Literacy Hispanic Individuals


Author/Creator ORCID



Type of Work


University of Baltimore. Division of Science, Information Arts, and Technologies


University of Baltimore. Master of Science in Interaction Design and Information Architecture

Citation of Original Publication


Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 United States



This study aims to co-design health educational material that could aid in the understanding of COVID-19 vaccination rates among the Spanish-speaking population, by focusing on improving the engagement of low-literacy individuals. This study explored 3 different formats of engaging with low-literacy individuals about COVID-19 vaccine information: through an SMS bi-directional conversation chat bot system, through infographics, and through a series of short videos. The study was designed with 2 stages and 2 separate sets of participants. The first stage involved a focus group with bilingual Spanish-speaking co-creator participants that helped design and develop the educational material later used in the study. The second stage involved individual interview sessions with native Spanish-speaking test participants that reviewed and assessed the three different formats of the educational material. The study measured test participants pre- and post-session knowledge about the COVID-19 vaccine to determine if the educational material presented had an impact on their answers. Additionally, test participants were asked to rate which format they preferred most and least, and to describe why. The goal of this study is to investigate a collective approach to developing health educational material for Spanish-speaking individuals and to examine 3 non- traditional formats of displaying health information.