Charging of free-falling test masses in orbit due to cosmic rays: Results from LISA Pathfinder

dc.contributor.authorArmano, M.
dc.contributor.authorAudley, H.
dc.contributor.authorBaird, J.
dc.contributor.authorBinetruy, P.
dc.contributor.authorBorn, M.
dc.contributor.authorBortoluzzi, D.
dc.contributor.authorCastelli, Eleonora
dc.contributor.authorCavalleri, A.
dc.contributor.authorCesarini, A.
dc.contributor.authorCruise, A. M.
dc.contributor.authorDanzmann, K.
dc.contributor.authorde Deus Silva, M.
dc.contributor.authorDiepholz, I.
dc.contributor.authorDixon, G.
dc.contributor.authorDolesi, R.
dc.contributor.authorFerraioli, L.
dc.contributor.authorFerroni, V.
dc.contributor.authorFitzsimons, E. D.
dc.contributor.authorFreschi, M.
dc.contributor.authorGesa, L.
dc.contributor.authorGiardini, D.
dc.contributor.authorGibert, F.
dc.contributor.authorGiusteri, R.
dc.contributor.authorGrimani, C.
dc.contributor.authorGrzymisch, J.
dc.contributor.authorHarrison, I.
dc.contributor.authorHartig, M.-S.
dc.contributor.authorHeinzel, G.
dc.contributor.authorHewitson, M.
dc.contributor.authorHollington, D.
dc.contributor.authorHoyland, D.
dc.contributor.authorHueller, M.
dc.contributor.authorInchauspé, H.
dc.contributor.authorJennrich, O.
dc.contributor.authorJetzer, P.
dc.contributor.authorKarnesis, N.
dc.contributor.authorKaune, B.
dc.contributor.authorKillow, C. J.
dc.contributor.authorKorsakova, N.
dc.contributor.authorLobo, J. A.
dc.contributor.authorLópez-Zaragoza, J. P.
dc.contributor.authorMaarschalkerweerd, R.
dc.contributor.authorMance, D.
dc.contributor.authorMartín, V.
dc.contributor.authorMartino, J.
dc.contributor.authorMartin-Polo, L.
dc.contributor.authorMartin-Porqueras, F.
dc.contributor.authorMcNamara, P. W.
dc.contributor.authorMendes, J.
dc.contributor.authorMendes, L.
dc.contributor.authorMeshksar, N.
dc.contributor.authorNofrarias, M.
dc.contributor.authorPaczkowski, S.
dc.contributor.authorPerreur-Lloyd, M.
dc.contributor.authorPetiteau, A.
dc.contributor.authorPlagnol, E.
dc.contributor.authorRamos-Castro, J.
dc.contributor.authorReiche, J.
dc.contributor.authorRivas, F.
dc.contributor.authorRobertson, D. I.
dc.contributor.authorRussano, G.
dc.contributor.authorSlutsky, J.
dc.contributor.authorSopuerta, C. F.
dc.contributor.authorSumner, T. J.
dc.contributor.authorTexier, D.
dc.contributor.authorThorpe, J. I.
dc.contributor.authorVetrugno, D.
dc.contributor.authorVitale, S.
dc.contributor.authorWanner, G.
dc.contributor.authorWard, H.
dc.contributor.authorWass, P. J.
dc.contributor.authorWeber, W. J.
dc.contributor.authorWissel, L.
dc.contributor.authorWittchen, A.
dc.contributor.authorZweifel, P.
dc.description.abstractA comprehensive summary of the measurements made to characterize test-mass charging due to the space environment during the LISA Pathfinder mission is presented. Measurements of the residual charge of the test mass after release by the grabbing and positioning mechanism show that the initial charge of the test masses was negative after all releases, leaving the test mass with a potential in the range from -12 to -512. Variations in the neutral test-mass charging rate between 21.7 and 30.7 es⁻¹ were observed over the course of the 17-month science operations produced by cosmic ray flux changes including a Forbush decrease associated with a small solar energetic particle event. A dependence of the cosmic ray charging rate on the test-mass potential between -30.2 and -40.3 es⁻¹ V⁻¹ was observed resulting in an equilibrium test-mass potential between 670 and 960 mV, and this is attributed to a contribution to charging from low-energy electrons emitted from the gold surfaces of the gravitational reference sensor. Data from the onboard particle detector show a reliable correlation with the charging rate and with other environmental monitors of the cosmic ray flux. This correlation is exploited to extrapolate test-mass charging rates to a 20-year period giving useful insight into the expected range of charging rate that may be observed in the LISA mission.
dc.description.sponsorshipThis work has been made possible by the LISA Pathfinder mission, which is part of the space-science program of the European Space Agency. The French contribution has been supported by the CNES (Accord Specifique de projet CNES1316634/CNRS103747), the CNRS, the Observatoire de Paris and the University Paris-Diderot. E. P. and H. I. would also like to acknowledge the financial support of the UnivEarthS Labex program at Sorbonne Paris Cit´e (ANR-10-LABX-0023 and ANR-11-IDEX-0005-02). The authors affiliated with Albert-Einstein-Institut acknowledge the support of the German Space Agency, DLR. The work is supported by the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy based on a resolution of the German Bundestag (FKZ50OQ0501 and FKZ50OQ1601). The Italian contribution has been supported by Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) and Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), Project No. 2017-29-H.1- 2020 “Attivit`a per la fase A della missione LISA.” The Spanish contribution has been supported by contracts No. AYA2010-15709 (MICINN), No. ESP2013-47637-P, and No. ESP2015-67234-P (MINECO). M. N. acknowledges support from Fundacion General CSIC (Programa ComFuturo). F. R. acknowledges an Formación de Personal Investigador (FPI) contract (MINECO). The Swiss contribution acknowledges the support of the Swiss Space Office (SSO) via the PRODEX Programme of ESA. L. F. is supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation. The UK groups wish to acknowledge support from the United Kingdom Space Agency (UKSA), the University of Glasgow, the University of Birmingham, Imperial College London, and the Scottish Universities Physics Alliance (SUPA). T. J. S. also acknowledges support from the Leverhulme Trust (EM-2019-070\4). J. I. T. and J. S. acknowledge the support of the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).
dc.format.extent13 pages
dc.genrejournal articles
dc.identifier.citationArmano, M., H. Audley, J. Baird, P. Binetruy, M. Born, D. Bortoluzzi, E. Castelli, et al. “Charging of Free-Falling Test Masses in Orbit Due to Cosmic Rays: Results from LISA Pathfinder.” Physical Review D 107, no. 6 (March 22, 2023): 062007.
dc.relation.isAvailableAtThe University of Maryland, Baltimore County (UMBC)
dc.relation.ispartofUMBC Faculty Collection
dc.relation.ispartofUMBC Center for Space Sciences and Technology (CSST) / Center for Research and Exploration in Space Sciences & Technology II (CRSST II)
dc.rightsThis work was written as part of one of the author's official duties as an Employee of the United States Government and is therefore a work of the United States Government. In accordance with 17 U.S.C. 105, no copyright protection is available for such works under U.S. Law.
dc.rightsPublic Domain Mark 1.0
dc.titleCharging of free-falling test masses in orbit due to cosmic rays: Results from LISA Pathfinder


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