Gender identity reflection and rumination scale: development and psychometric evaluation

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Towson University. Department of Psychology


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This research develops the Gender Identity Reflection and Rumination Scale (GRRS), a scale that specifically measures rumination in the context of gender identity. Items of the GRRS were formulated taking into account previous research in rumination, stigma stress, and identity processing relevant to the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT) community. Two samples were collected to investigate the psychometric properties of the GRRS. Exploratory factor analysis of data from 222 transgender participants resulted in three factors of gender identity rumination, (a) reflection, (b) rumination, (c) preoccupation with others' perceptions. Confirmatory factor analysis of data from 312 transgender participants substantiated the 3-factor model of the GRRS. The 15-item GRRS demonstrated acceptable reliability and followed expected correlation patterns with various validity measures. This research provides a holistic approach for considering rumination in the transgender population.