Validity of the 12-Item French Version of the Tobacco Craving Questionnaire in Treatment-Seeking Smokers
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School of Humanities and Social Sciences
Citation of Original Publication
Berlin I, Singleton EG, Heishman SJ. Validity of the 12-item French version of the Tobacco Craving Questionnaire in treatment-seeking smokers. Nicotine & Tobacco Research. 2010;12(5):500-507. doi:10.1093/ntr/ntq039.
Introduction: The French version of the Tobacco Craving Questionnaire (FTCQ) is a valid and reliable 47-item self-report instrument that assesses tobacco craving in four factors: emotionality, expectancy, compulsivity, and purposefulness. For use in research and clinical settings, we constructed a 12-item version of the FTCQ (FTCQ-12). Method: The FTCQ-12 was administered to treatment-seeking French smokers (n = 310) enrolled in the Adjustment of DOses of NIcotine in Smoking Cessation (ADONIS) trial. We conducted confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and examined congruence in factor loadings between the FTCQ and FTCQ-12 to determine the validity and reliability of the FTCQ-12. Measures of tobacco craving, withdrawal, smoking patterns, and smoking history were included to explore the concurrent validity of the FTCQ-12. We used craving scores to distinguish participants who were highly dependent on nicotine from those less dependent on nicotine. Results: CFA indicated excellent fit for a four-factor model, with congruence coefficients indicating moderate similarity in factor patterns and loadings between the FTCQ and FTCQ-12. Individual factors of the FTCQ-12 correlated positively with smoking history and withdrawal variables. Participants who were highly dependent on nicotine were nearly six times more likely to score >5 on the General Craving Score (maximum: 7) than those less dependent on nicotine. Discussion: Findings suggest that the FTCQ-12 measures the same four factors as the FTCQ and TCQ, and these four constructs have unique properties. The FTCQ-12 yields valid and reliable indices of tobacco craving and has potential clinical utility for rapid assessment of tobacco craving in smokers seeking treatment.