Hood College Organizational Leadership

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    The Impact of Membership in the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints on Academic Achievement at the High School Level
    (2023) Mosley, Rodney; David Gurzick; Hood College George B. Delaplaine Jr. School of Business; Hood College Organizational Leadership
    Throughout history religion has influenced the behavior of adherents, however, little research has been completed determining how these religious beliefs result in changes in academic achievement. This research study, on the relationship between religious affiliation and academic achievement, is constructed on the theory that religious teachings result in changes in behavior that can be measured as different outcomes. This United States research, focused on 1,057 surveyed 18–24-year-olds from the United States, examined if the educational teachings of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints resulted in different academic achievement compared to other religious affiliations. This research expanded on prior research (Albrecht & Heaton, 1984, Merrill et al., 2003) with additional contributions examining academic achievement though High School Grades and SAT/ACT scores. The research included the investigation of other demographic and control variables that have been shown in the body of research to significantly influence academic achievement, including parental education expectations (Shim, 2000; Wilder, 2014), educational resources (McCune & Hoffman, 2009), and parental education attainment (Schlechter & Milevsky, 2010). The findings of this research study reported that Church membership had a significant difference in the mean academic achievement measurement when compared to the sample population (sig. =<.001). Church membership had a significant difference (sig. = <.05) in mean academic achievement with only some of the other religious affiliations. Mean variances of academic achievement between religious affiliation were not consistent when evaluating High School Grades and SAT/ACT scores. Analysis of demographic and control variables suggest that less than 12.5% of the variance in academic achievement can be primarily explained by the level of parental education, parental educational expectations, and race. The results of this study should inform religious leaders that the focus on education within a spiritual context can result in improved academic achievement. The study provides several opportunities for future research including evaluating the correlation between high school grades and standardized test scores in a post-COVID educational environment. Performing multi-factor ANOVA of religious affiliation and academic achievement with additional constructs with large enough sample sizes is an additional opportunity to expand understanding.
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    Exploring Women’s Career Transitions into Entrepreneurship During the COVID-19 Pandemic Through the Lens of the Kaleidoscope Career Model
    (2023-12-14) Johnson, Cynthia F.; Cuddapah, Jennifer; Dufour, Peggy; Manikoth, Nisha; Hood College Education; Hood College Organizational Leadership
    ABSTRACT This research was conducted to help organizations, other researchers, and women interested in entrepreneurship understand the complexity of the experience of women entrepreneurs. The Kaleidoscope Career Model (KCM) Theory and the Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) were used to explore how participants perceived their individualized experiences and made sense of their motivations for becoming entrepreneurs during the COVID-19 pandemic. The two research questions were 1) What are the lived experiences of women who left traditional jobs to pursue entrepreneurship during the COVID-19 pandemic? and 2) How do the KCM motivational parameters of authenticity, balance, and challenge factor into the participants’ decisions to leave traditional jobs to pursue entrepreneurship? Although sampling was open to any woman over age 18 who owns at least 51% of her business, and who started her business after March 13, 2020, interestingly all 8 participants were women of color. This unforeseen emergence of racial homogeneity of the participant sample provided interesting perspective for analysis that went beyond age, geographic region, and gender, which were anticipated demographic differences. Interviews were conducted via Zoom with 15 open-ended questions and three supplemental activities, a Critical Incident Technique (CIT), a KCM scale, and a Self-Anchoring scale. Findings show that Gen Xers and Y/Millennial’s indication of authenticity as the primary motivator in early and mid-career stages. Authenticity and balance were both identified as primary. Participants relied on guidance from a higher power to get through difficult times. Participants reflected on life and focused on the opportunity to act versus the crisis. Several implications for policymakers, organizations, and researchers to consider were initiatives centered on cultivating authenticity as a motivator of women in early and mid-career, incorporating reliance on a higher power as a coping mechanism during entrepreneurial challenges, consideration of women of color as an intersectional factor in research, and advancing intrapreneurship within organizations. A delimitation was the geographical focus on the United States. Future studies should implement longitudinal research designs to monitor the progress and hurdles faced by women entrepreneurs across an extended timeline, encompassing data from before and after the pandemic and delving into more experiences, successes, and challenges faced by women of color in entrepreneurship.
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    Impact of Job Embeddedness on Turnover Intention: A Study of Frontline Production Leaders
    (2023-12-10) Billups, Darnell; Manikoth, Nisha; Gurzick, David; Jansen, James; Hood College Education; Doctoral Program in Organizational Leadership
    Retaining frontline production leaders in the manufacturing industry is of concern because frontline production leaders influence job satisfaction and performance of frontline production employees. Therefore, understanding factors impacting the turnover of manufacturing frontline production leaders is critical to creating more productive workplaces (Priestland & Hanig, 2005). Manufacturing frontline production leaders have not been the subject of many research studies, even though their role in manufacturing is critical. There are no studies on Job Embeddedness (JE) of production leaders in manufacturing and its impact on their turnover. In this study, I used multiple regression analysis to determine the relationship between components of Job Embeddedness (JE) and Turnover Intention (TI) amongst this population. Conceptualization of Job Embeddedness (JE) by Mitchell et al. (2001), as consisting of Organizational Embeddedness (OE) and Community Embeddedness (CE), was adopted for this study. A 40-item survey was used to collect data from manufacturing frontline production leaders across the United States. 727 completed responses were used for analysis. Multiple regression and moderation analysis were conducted using IBM SPSS Statistics (Version 29) and PROCESS Macro version 4.2 (Hayes, 2022) . In summary, the results confirmed Organizational Embeddedness (OE) was negatively related to turnover intention and significant. Community Embeddedness (CE) did not have a significant relationship with Turnover Intention (TI). However, Community Embeddedness (CE) moderated the relationship between Organizational Embeddedness (OE) and Turnover Intention (TI) where high levels of both Community and Organizational Embeddedness created the least risk for employee turnover. The study’s results reflect the importance of companies adopting policies that embed employees within their organization and collaborating with community organizations to find ways to increase Community Embeddedness (CE). These strategies at organizational, community, and local government levels and policies that emanate from an appreciation of these findings can have an impact in strengthening the manufacturing industry in the United States.
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    Leading for Educational Equity and Change: A Case Study of Assistant Principals’ Beliefs and Actions
    Kelly, Ebony-Nicole; Hood College Education; Hood College Organizational Leadership
    This study about Assistant Principals responds to the call for educational leaders to meet the needs of those student-scholars who are marginalized, disenfranchised and forgotten. Administrators are increasingly responsible for ensuring an equitable learning environment in schools. When school leaders commit to educational equity (i.e., fairness, access, and opportunity), they enhance teacher guidance towards influencing equitable student outcomes. This qualitative case study examined assistant principals’ perspectives around leading for educational equity and change and sought an understanding of what assistant principals are doing to make education more just. The research questions were: 1. What are assistant principals’ perspectives of their role in leading for educational equity? 1a. What are assistant principals’ beliefs around leading for educational equity? 1b. What are assistant principals’ actions in leading for educational equity? Seven assistant principals from a large, Mid-Atlantic public school district who were engaged in equity initiatives comprised the sample. A survey was sent to all 59 assistant principals in the district, and 15 were completed for analysis. Additional data sources from the sample of 7 selected participants included virtual, semi-structured interviews, equity artifacts, a self-anchoring scale, and open coding identified key words from the transcripts, scales, and surveys, and focused coding identified trends. Findings of the study included: building positive and genuine relationships is key; (b) equity in scheduling; (c) interviewing and hiring for excellence and diversity; (d) professional development around equity, anti-racism, and culturally responsive teaching; (e) being a lifelong learner; and (f) parent/community engagement. These findings provide insight on the lived experiences of assistant principals who are leading for educational equity. The findings can support assistant principals to learn from colleagues who are leading for educational equity and use that learning to promote equitable leadership practices on their campuses. The findings also provide heightened awareness and urgency for providing professional development to support future administrators to become educational equity leaders. Equally important, the findings provide insight to guide the development of knowledge and skills for strategic planning and implementation to support culturally relevant instruction and, ultimately, the overall improved performance for student-scholars. Finally, the results can be used to help school districts and institutions of higher education as they prepare future administrators to be strong, resilient leaders for educational equity.
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    School Administrators’ Perceptions of Self-Efficacy as Educational Equity Leaders: A Mixed-Methods Exploration
    (2023-05-02) Artis, Carrie; Hood College Education; Hood College Organizational Leadership
    Public school systems and school-based administrators are facing increasing expectations and accountability regarding educational equity. In their attempts to meet these expectations, school systems are training and providing professional development to educational leaders. The purpose of this explanatory, sequential mixed-methods case study was to provide an in-depth understanding of the self-efficacy of school-based administrators in successfully implementing equity and culturally responsive leadership standards and expectations. The study sample included current school-based principals and assistant principals from a large mid-Atlantic school system. The first phase of this study, the quantitative phase, included a survey of school-based administrators to measure their perceived self-efficacy. The second phase, the qualitative phase, included semi structured interviews with school-based administrators. The findings will be useful to school systems as they develop training and professional development for educational leaders to meet educational equity standards. This study found that most principals in the studied district have an intermediate level of self-efficacy for equity and culturally responsive leadership standards and expectations. This study also found that on average, principals serving in schools where the students of color represent over 50% of the student body had lower self-efficacy to meet equity and culturally responsive leadership standards and expectations. Lastly, this study found that mastery experiences were the strongest contributing factor of self-efficacy for equity and culturally responsive leadership. This study also found vicarious experiences were a major contributing factor of self-efficacy for equity and culturally responsive leadership. This study concludes with recommendations for school districts include increasing administrators’ opportunities for mastery and vicarious experiences to practice the Tools of Cultural Proficiency.
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    The Relationship Between Teachers’ Perceptions of Their Principal’s Authentic Leadership and Their Own Academic Optimism in Title I Elementary Schools
    (2022-12-14) Drill, Noah; Cuddapah, Jennifer; Hood College Graduate School; Hood College Organizational Leadership
    Academic optimism (AO) is positively correlated for student achievement and is comprised of three constructs: academic emphasis, collective efficacy, and trust in students and parents. In essence, AO is the permeated belief of a teacher that academic achievement is important, that teachers can effectively increase student achievement, and that students and parents are trusted partners in the learning process. As effective principal leadership is vital towards developing and maintaining effective schools and improving student achievement, the development of AO in teachers must be analyzed within the context of leadership. If school principals were to increase the AO of their staff, student achievement would likely increase. In this exploratory study, I examined this relationship through the lens of authentic leadership (AL), an area of research that emphasizes genuine and ‘real’ leadership. I focused on the interaction between perceptions of principals’ leadership behaviors (i.e., AL) and teachers’ belief systems, measured through AO. A survey containing valid and reliable measurement scales for AO, AL and four control variables (i.e., gender, race, years of experience, Enabling School Structure) as well as supplemental open-ended prompts was sent through Survey Monkey to all of the 2,124 Title I elementary school teachers in XCPS, a large, diverse public school system in the Mid-Atlantic region. The survey received 245 complete responses that met criterion for inclusion. Using cross-sectional survey data analyzed with hierarchical multiple regression, this study investigated the relationship between teachers’ perceptions of their principal’s AL and their own AO. I found that after accounting for the control variables, AL was a statistically significant predictor of AO, collective efficacy, and trust in students and parents, two of AO’s three components. Given that AO predicts student achievement, it is notable that principals’ AL was positively, moderately correlated with teachers’ AO, as AL could thereby also indirectly result in increased student achievement. Additionally, the qualitative data from the open-ended responses suggested that teachers who perceived that their principal demonstrates authentic leadership had higher beliefs in their own ability to successfully teach and for their students to successfully learn. Thus, schools and school systems should consider focusing their leadership development programs and processes around developing authentic leaders. As academic interventions, strategies and processes that are successful in Title I schools tend to generalize well to other schools, comparable results could occur in schools across the nation.
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    The Impact of Compassion Fatigue on Anxiety and Depression Among Veterinary Nurses: A Study on the Moderating Effect of Compassion Satisfaction
    Johnson, Carrie; Manikoth, Nisha; Gurzick, David; Moore, Laura; Shaine, Megan; Hood College Doctoral; Hood College Organizational Leadership
    Compassion fatigue, as an occupational psychological hazard, has been studied in many populations, yet there is limited evidence of the impact of compassion fatigue on veterinary nurses and how it contributes to anxiety and depression. This study operationalizes compassion fatigue as the cumulative effect of burnout and secondary traumatic stress and investigates the moderating role of compassion satisfaction in the relationship between compassion fatigue and mental illness constructs of anxiety and depression among veterinary nurses. Data was analyzed using hierarchical multiple regression and moderation analysis. Results indicate moderation effects of compassion satisfaction on the relationship between secondary traumatic stress and mental illness constructs of anxiety and depression. Compassion satisfaction did not moderate the effect of burnout on anxiety and depression. The study makes important theoretical contributions to the understanding of compassion fatigue in the caring professions and offers practical recommendations to veterinary organizations for establishing meaningful ways to engage employees so compassion satisfaction can be maximized to mitigate the effects of compassion fatigue on anxiety and depression.
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    Doctoral Students' Perceptions of Stress, Stressors, and Coping Strategies
    (2022) Kazemifar Askari, Heidi; Cuddapah, Jennifer; Hood College Graduate; Hood College Organizational Leadership
    Executive doctoral programs in organizational leadership are increasing. These programs are organized in such a way that students can take classes on the weekends or evenings without having to leave their jobs. With the negative impact of stress on doctoral students’ well-being, academic performance, and attrition, little is known about executive doctoral students’ experiences of stress in these programs. This phenomenological case study of stress, informed by 15 doctoral students and three faculty, explored doctoral students’ perceptions and experiences of stress. Analysis of the participants’ interviews revealed that students expected stress to be part of the doctoral program and that the stress they experienced was manageable. Findings from this study showed time, time management, balance of work, life, and study, the dissertation process, and heavy workload as sources of stress similar to other doctoral programs. Two stressors for executive doctoral students, not mentioned in other studies, were Saturday classes and the required statistics course. Challenges related to work and family and the pandemic were students’ stressors outside of the program. Executive doctoral students stress impacted their wellbeing more than the quality/quantity of their research and their decision to leave academia. Coping strategies reported were planning and prioritizing, being mindful, exercising, and taking a break; however, participants stated that there was no universal solution for coping with stress. 12 By gaining an in-depth understanding of the students’ perceptions of stress, as well as students’ and faculties’ perceptions of sources of stress and effective coping strategies, this study informs future doctoral students’ understanding of stress and the program stressors so they would know what to expect when they enter programs. The study can help universities unlock new methods for managing stress or assist universities in improving existing strategies. Effective strategies have the potential to impact students’ well-being, academic performance, and attrition rates. Future research can focus on comparative studies to see how the results compare to the findings in other doctoral programs. Given the different roles and responsibilities of executive doctoral students, universities, program directors and faculty should learn more about students’ stress so they can better assist students in mitigating it.
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    Influence of a Leadership Coach Community: New School Leaders' Self Efficacy Perspectives
    (2022-12-12) Myers, Karine; Cuddapah, Jennifer; Hood College Department of Education; Doctor of Organizational Leadership
    The role of the school principal continues to increase in complexity and challenge. Administrators are expected to have a significant impact on student achievement and absenteeism in addition to teacher satisfaction and retention. Yet, half of principals have less than five or fewer years of leadership experience. High-quality, personalized professional learning, such as leadership coaching, is essential to support principals in their development to ensure effective schools and student success. This qualitative action research study aimed to understand the influence of a leadership coaching community of practice on new school administrators' perceptions of self-efficacy. It examined participants' recommendations and feedback for possible programmatic improvements and adjustments. Twelve leadership coaching participants from a K-12 mid-sized, mid-Atlantic school system completed two semi-structured interviews, one at mid-intervention and the other at the end of the intervention. Six participants completed and submitted pre and post self-efficacy scales, and four principal supervisors completed an end- of-intervention survey. Researcher logs and memos served as an additional data source. Coded data identified patterns and themes for coaches, coachees, and the leadership coaching program. The study found that coachees experienced increased self-efficacy, valued trusted relationships and collegial collaboration, and felt supported in their transition to their new principalship role. Participants felt the program was mutually beneficial for the coach and coachee. Findings indicate that the program provided valuable support and should be continued. The participants recommended the program expand beyond the school-based administrator role to serve and support other leaders within the school system as they acclimate to new roles. Results provide insight for other school systems seeking to design or implement a similar leadership coaching program to influence leadership self-efficacy both for coaches and coachees .
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    Principals' Perceptions of School Climate Surveys and How They Influence Their Practice
    (2022-05-05) Munsey, Joshua; Cuddapah, Jennifer; Hood College Education; Organizational Leadership
    In schools, principals are responsible for many things, but one of the primary responsibilities is to create a positive school environment. School climate has a different meaning to different stakeholders, including school leaders, school staff, and students, as well as parent and community members. School climate surveys are one way to measure school climate. Results provide each stakeholder with the opportunity to provide feedback on many of the aspects that make up the school climate. Additionally, climate surveys give administrators and other interested parties an opportunity to assess how stakeholders feel about the school climate. While climate surveys can provide insight into what is happening at a particular school, they also can be misleading. This may be problematic since they can have a large impact on evaluation of a school or school administrator. This qualitative research project explored how the perceptions of principals about their school climate surveys influenced their practice. A brief questionnaire was used to gather information from principals about their experiences with and perceptions about climate surveys. Each of the 12 principal participants was interviewed to further explore their perceptions about climate surveys. Within the interviews, a self-anchoring scale and values inventory activities were used to delve into how their perceptions of school climate surveys have influenced their practice. Principals reflected on how and why they used climate survey data to act or not on implementing a policy or a structure. The findings of the study indicate that climate matters for student achievement and that the duration of a principal’s experience in a school makes a difference. Additionally, the preparation of the administrator is of paramount importance as is the need to have multiple data points.
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    Federal Funding as a Driver of School Reform through Budgetary Decision Making Among Transformational Leaders in Title I Schools
    (2022-04-25) Allen, Yolanda; Bands, Kathleen; Labatt, Arronza; Rose, Caleb; Morrow, Adrienne; Hood College Department Organizational Leadership
    Educational equity has been a long-standing goal among legislators since the passing of the Elementary and Secondary Act of 1965 (McLaughlin, 1975). While initially the focus was examining the disparity in resources available to schools in different geographical areas, as accountability measures were enacted, the achievement gap between socioeconomic disadvantaged groups and their peers emerged. Despite the many efforts of school reform from the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, which included provisions, Title I, to provide subsidies to schools servicing a high concentration of students from socioeconomically impacted communities, and the various iterations that followed, the discrepancy in student performance persists. There are, however, some economically impacted schools where gains are being made in narrowing this disparity in performance. Research related to student achievement have examined the impact of funding as well as the process that leaders use to make decisions (Lafortune, Rothstein, Schanzenbach, 2018; Bezzina, Gatelli, Grassetti, Vidoni, 2008; Martorell, Stange, McFarlin, Jr., 2015). The research, however, has neglected to study the concrete financial decisions made by principals coupled with leader behaviors that influence student outcomes. Rooted in Karl Marx’s theory of justice, this qualitative study contributes to the ongoing research around public education, funding, and equity to highlight strategies that leaders employ through the allocation of federal Title I funds that influence student achievement (Marx, 1976). With the moral underpinning of social responsibility as it relates to equitable opportunities for all, this research explores the ideology of Transformational Leadership and its presence in Title I leaders along with spending priorities and decision-making processes to create a level playing field for students. The information garnered from this research will support the development of school-based leaders through academic and district-based development programs. In Phase 1 of the study, district level state assessment scores for each Title I school in the sample were retrieved and analyzed to examine growth trends in the Title I schools across a 10-year period. The rate of growth in student performance was compared in two durations of time during NCLB (2010-2015) and ESSA (2016-2019). This performance data was used to further understand the leadership lens used in establishing budgetary priorities and processes among building leaders during these shifts in legislation. Phase 2 involved one-on-one interviews with Title 1 principals. Responses were coded where spending priority themes emerged, attention to the The People, The Landscape, The Foundation and The Soul. Phase 3 included two focus group sessions of five participants each. Principals included in these focus groups lead schools with a large socioeconomically disadvantaged population. However, the schools represented in the focus group samples do not qualify for the identification of Title I therefore are not recipients of Title I federal funding. Their responses coupled with those of Title I principals were used to align practices and procedures to the elements of Transformational Leadership. The combination of this data analysis asserts that effective school reform begins with a transformational leader who embodies charisma and develops a customized program for their school through collaboration and effective communication.
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    The Perceptions of Elementary Principals on Promoting Positive Staff Morale
    (2022-04-22) Maddrey-Lashley, Lakeisha; Cuddapah, Jennifer; Bands, Kathleen; Hardcastle Stanford, Beverly; Smith, Myra; Hood College Department of Organizational Leadership; Doctorate of Organizational Leadership
    Elementary principals influence organizational behavior and school climate through their actions and behaviors. The leader’s style can have a lasting impact on staff morale. Employee morale refers to an employee's sense of psychological safety, purpose, and confidence in the future. Research has shown that school leaders influence staff morale and positive school climate through their interactions with the people in the organization and their decision-making processes. This qualitative phenomenological study extrapolated the lived experiences of elementary principals who had maintained or accomplished a positive school climate over time. This study was designed to answer the following questions: (1) What are the elementary principals’ perceptions of the actions a leader takes to promote positive staff morale? and (2) What critical life experiences do elementary principals believe impacted their leadership actions that improved staff morale? A phenomenological approach using interviews, surveys, and focus groups was used to understand the essence of the lived experiences and perceptions of elementary school principals in relation to how they have maintained or promoted a positive staff morale and school climate over time. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, data were collected virtually. The criterion sample consisted of 33 elementary school principals who had been identified as having a positive school climate by a district survey. In all data collection sources, principals consistently referenced actions they took to promote a positive staff morale that centered around common ideals and concepts. The following six themes emerged from triangulation of the data: (a) Serve them, relate to them, (b) Collaborate and engage, (c) Be authentic; (d) Be visible and accessible; (e) Learn the school culture; and (f) Embrace your lived experiences. The lived experiences of the elementary school principals in this study served as a resource to help other school leaders take similar actions to promote a positive staff morale.
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    Perceptions of Women’s Economic Progress and Empowerment in Guinea
    (2022-04-22) Kamara, Mamady; Jose, Anita Ph.D.; Eager, Paige Ph.D.; Joshi, Janak Ph.D.; Hood College Education Department; Doctoral Program in Organizational Leadership
    This study was designed to measure the perceptions and opinions of women’s progress and economic empowerment in Guinea. Conducted to answer three questions – the perceptions of women regarding barriers to women’s empowerment in Guinea, the perceptions of women about economic progress, since the implementation of UNSCR 1325 through NAP in Guinea, and the policy priorities on women’s economic empowerment in Guinea as recommended by the UN, OXFAM, NAP, and PNDES – this study addressed the lack of empirical research on measures to increase women’s participation in economic empowerment. It used a descriptive research design, which was quantitative in nature; it used a cross-sectional study of women in Guinea using a survey (Salkinde, 2000). Results indicated that out of the 102 women respondents who contributed to the survey, many worked for corporations and non-governmental organizations, others were entrepreneurs and government officials. Considering the challenges that women in Guinea face in terms of economic empowerment, the findings further suggested that the Guinean government, in collaboration with NGOs, civic society groups, and international institutions, should take measures to promote policies that will completely lift barriers to women’s economic empowerment. They can do this by focusing on issues related to the lack of economic and legal infrastructure, lack of quality work and associated services, and the lack of social protection and education opportunities.
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    Predictors of Turnover Intent in the Executive Branch: A Multiple Logistic Regression Analysis Using Federal Employee Viewpoint Survey Indices
    Jansen, James; Jose, Anita; Hood College Education; Doctor of Organizational Leadership
    The purpose of this research is to highlight the antecedents of employee turnover, one of the most understudied areas in human resource management. Given the phenomenon of the “great resignation” that is resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic, the topic of turnover assumes greater significance. The relationship between employee perceptions of workplace indices and stated turnover intention is examined using the 2017 Federal Employee Viewpoint Survey of 486,105 executive branch employees from 195 subagencies. The indices included in the study are the Employee Engagement Index, Global Satisfaction Index, Human Capital Assessment and Accountability Framework, and the New Inclusion Quotient. As predicted, multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that satisfaction with the job, general satisfaction with the employer, fairness of compensation, and talent management practices at the workplace were the major influencers of turnover intention. These results were further validated with the Receiver Operating Characteristics Curve for their discriminant ability. Employees who were satisfied with their jobs, their overall agency, distributive equity, and their agency's talent management practices were more likely to stay at their organizations than others. Of these different variables, job satisfaction and general satisfaction were most strongly related to employee intent to stay. A further examination of underlying items of the four variables using Principal Component Analysis revealed that "work environment" and "work value" explained employee intention to leave. The major conclusions are that if managers want to reduce turnover, they need to support a fair and equitable workplace where employees perceive that they are valued, and their talents are utilized. Employees also need to feel good about their jobs and employers. The results also suggest that the employees and organizations can outgrow each other. Empowered employees, with a high-performance record, who have limited growth opportunities for advancement can outgrow their organizations. Sometimes organizations can outgrow employees who are unable to adapt to changing conditions. Implications for theory, practice, and future research conclude the dissertation.
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    Servant Leadership: How Dr. Kathleen Bands Builds Leaders Who Transform Communities
    (2021) Students and Faculty of DOL; Hood College Graduate School; Doctoral Program in Organizational Leadership
    Dr. Kathleen Bands has impacted scholar-practitioners in transformative ways throughout her tenure as the director of Hood College’s Doctoral Program in Organizational Leadership. She has served leaders to facilitate their work as being mindful leaders who transform communities. Currens (DOL 2020) writes, “Servant leaders are attentive to the concerns of the followers, empathizing with them and nurturing them. These leaders put followers first, empower them, and help them develop their full capacities. Servant leaders serve for the greater good of the organization, community, and society.” Kathleen Bands embodies this essence of being a servant leader. To explore what Dr. Bands has done to influence leaders and embody servant leadership, this dissertation examines the multifaceted responses to the research question, “How has Dr. Kathleen Bands built leaders and transformed communities?” An overview of Dr. Bands’ career and professional contributions is presented in Chapter 1, followed by a review of literature from the Hood College archives documenting her achievements. Next, several of the methods she developed and implemented to build leadership capacity in scholar-practitioners are outlined in Chapter 3. The findings in Chapter 4 demonstrate how Dr. Bands has influenced cohort after cohort in developing their capacity to be mindful leaders who critically examine and improve themselves, their organizations, and their communities. As each doctoral student, candidate, and graduate indicates, her work as a servant leader has left an indelible impression. As each faculty member writes, she challenged them to stretch the competencies within their wheelhouse and to bring the practical implications of theory into the classroom. Finally, in Chapter 5, the academic conclusions of the program are represented by the dissertations completed and doctorates earned to date. Greenleaf (2002) writes, “All that is needed to rebuild community as a viable life form for large numbers of people is for enough servant-leaders to show the way, not by mass movements, but by each servant-leader demonstrating his or her unlimited liability for a quite specific community-related group” (p. 53). This dissertation celebrates the profound impact Dr. Kathleen Bands has had as a servant leader on all the people involved in the Hood College Doctoral Program in Organizational Leadership. We have been transformed by embarking on the journey she envisioned, launched, chartered, and championed.
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    An Empirical Investigation Into the Antecedents of the Perceptions of Work-Life Balance of Professional Women
    (2022-04-20) Shipmon-Friedli, Shelia; Jose, Anita; Bands, Kathleen C.; Harris, Keith; Dufour, Peggy; George B. Delaplaine Jr. School of Business; Organizational Leadership (DBA)
    The entrance of women into the workforce in large numbers in the 20th century was one of the pivotal moments that changed the traditional family work roles of mom at home and dad in the workplace. Maintaining a balance in those roles between work and nonwork life has been the subject of much research (Ferguson et al., 2015; Goode, 1960; Greenhaus & Powell, 2006; Hogarth et al., 2001). Studies show that when employees feel support from the employer, they become more committed to the organization, and that work-life balance (WLB) policies increase organizational performance (Ferguson et al., 2015; Lazar et al., 2010). Furthermore, Ferguson et al. (2015) showed that the spillover effect enables supported employees to gain balance in both domains of work and personal life. There is a gap in this research, however, related to professional women and their role in balancing the changing dynamics of work and the diverse family. The COVID-19 pandemic brought the exceptional challenges faced by women professionals into sharp focus, as well as the significant mental and physical health consequences that can follow when adequate support is absent. Using a mixed-methods research design and a convenience sample of 184 participants, I examined how professional women maintained a balance between life and work. I also explored how work-family conflict and family-work conflict impact the perceived satisfaction of work-life balance (Voydanoff, 2004). Quantitative data were collected through a 109-question online survey, while qualitative data were derived from the analysis of six one-on-one in-depth interviews and narrative question responses provided by 133 survey respondents. Multiple regression analysis showed that four of six independent variables had a significant impact on WLB satisfaction: having WLB policies (p < .01) and team resources (p < .001) present in the workplace, and time for self (p < .001), were all positively related to WLB satisfaction, while work-family conflict was negatively related (p < .001). Using the same six constructs, an a priori analysis of responses to an open-ended survey question showed that 71% of responses aligned with two of the constructs: WLB policies and time for self. Three themes emerged from pattern coding of six interview transcripts, validating the importance of WLB, the difficulty in achieving it, and the need for support. Implications for practice were offered in three areas: organizations, government, and professional women. Collectively, they reinforce the importance of having WLB policies in the workplace and ensuring that employees know them; promoting practices such as the use of team resources, flexible schedules, advocacy, and mentoring; and having an independent government agency to rationalize and deconflict workplace policies and ensure that policy decision-making is based on data. Implications for future research include conducting the study using a random sample, conducting it solely with men, and conducting it outside the COVID-19 pandemic era.
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    Perceptions and Attitudes of Clinicians at a Private Outpatient Mental Health Clinic on Change in Treatment Approach from Individual to Team-Based Delivery
    Ojo, Olaoluwasupo; CUDDAPAH, JENNIFER; Hood College Department of Education; Doctoral Program in Organizational Leadership
    The need for mental health services in the United States has increased, and the lack of trained mental health clinicians to meet the demand has led to team-based rather than traditional individual treatment. At a private outpatient mental healthcare clinic serving primarily Medicaid and Medicare clients with a range of services in a Mid-Atlantic state, shortages of skilled providers, overload of clients, and provider burnout resulted in high provider turnover and client loss. To meet these deficits, the researcher proposed a transition from individual to team-based treatment, in which experts in several disciplines collaborate to provide services to clients. The clinicians voiced many objections. To address them, the researcher introduced a transitional clinician team-based intervention that took place over 3 months with new clients. The purpose of this participatory action research study was to qualitatively explore the perceptions and attitudes of mental health clinicians about the change using the Ambrose model. Eleven clinicians responded in semi-structured interviews, and data analysis through coding led to theme identification. Findings centered on these six themes: No Intervention Experience; Uncertainty, Skepticism, Misgivings; Concern for the Clients; Cautious Optimism; Admiration for Vision and Eagerness to Begin; and Caring and Creativity. The findings informed further direction of the clinic during the transition from individual to team approach for mental health treatment. Recommendations include attending to the importance of the clinic location and the need to reintroduce the Ambrose model with providers. Additionally, leaders of other mental health clinics experiencing provider and client dropout and financial difficulties may also use the study findings to inform a potential shift to the team approach.
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    A Community’s Response to an Equity-Centered, Comprehensive, School Redistricting Proposal
    (2022) Weller, Mary; Hood College Graduate School; Organizational Leadership
    In 1954, the U. S. Supreme Court outlawed racial segregation in America’s schools. Yet, racial and socio-economic segregation continue in schools and invariably lead to differential academic outcomes for students correlated to both factors. Despite evidence that disruption of segregation benefits all students both academically and non-academically, attempts to alter the status quo frequently garner active and energetic resistance from socially dominant groups including white, middle-class parents. This qualitative, critical case study examined and contributed to the research on equity-focused, educational leadership by investigating the case of a large, diverse public school system in the mid-Atlantic, the pseudonymous Bowmantown Public Schools, when a comprehensive redistricting of attendance areas was introduced. The redistricting proposal was designed to improve facility utilization and increase diversity in schools. The study probed the following research questions: (1) How did the community respond to a school system proposal to enhance educational equity through comprehensive redistricting of school attendance areas? (2) Who were the community members that publicly voiced their views on the proposed redistricting plan? (3) What were the explicit and implicit narratives publicly voiced by community members during the proposal period? and, (4) How were the concepts of race, opportunity, and merit perceived by the community during the redistricting process? Critical Race Theory served as the theoretical framework for the study. Methodology included qualitative content analysis of over 2,500 testimonies filed by community members in an approximate 6-week period in 2019. Data sources also included school system records, school system data sets, and a reflexive researcher journal. Findings indicated that though the redistricting proposal did not explicitly cite race as a rationale for the student reassignments, colorblind racism played a central role in people’s responses. Arguments against the proposal included infringement on property rights and civil liberties. A counter narrative elevated interest convergence as a path forward. Findings suggest that despite evidence showing racially heterogenous learning environments offer benefits to all students, normalization of racial isolation in neighborhoods and schools artificially amplifies opposition to policies that might disrupt this racialized status quo. Leaders’ attention to both counternarratives and unheard perspectives may hold the key to breaking the juggernaut of white privilege that has shaped educational experiences and structures in American public education.
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    The Relationship Between Leadership Style and Employee Perceptions of Organizational Appreciation of Creativity and Innovation
    (2022-04-12) Plitt, Bridget; Bands, Kathleen; Hood College Department of Education; Doctoral Program in Organizational Leadership
    This study assessed the relationship between the transactional and transformational leadership style behaviors of federal bank regulators and employee perceptions of organizational appreciation of creativity and innovation. To investigate this relationship, this explanatory study utilized all 2,876 records in the 2019 Federal Employee Viewpoint Survey (FEVS) results from the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency, one of the four U.S. prudential federal bank regulators. Hierarchical regression was utilized to analyze the FEVS data, and results indicate that both transactional and transformational leadership have a positive impact on U.S. federal bank regulator employee perceptions of organizational appreciation of creativity and innovation. Furthermore, study results suggest that transactional leadership behaviors trump transformational behaviors when it comes to positively impacting U.S. federal bank regulator employee perceptions of organizational appreciation of creativity and innovation. These findings are significant in that they deliver ground-breaking information on the existence of relationships between specific leadership style behaviors and U.S. federal employee perceptions of organizational appreciation of creativity and innovation. Furthermore, this work adds to the overall body of knowledge on the connection between leadership style and U.S. federal employee perceptions of their respective organizations. However, it also contributes an entirely new area of research, as the relationship between transactional and transformational leadership behaviors and U.S. federal employee perceptions of organizational appreciation of creativity and innovations simply has not been investigated previously. This study also delivers a quantitative, repeatable analysis approach that can be applied to broader federal agency efforts to understand links between transactional and transformational leadership behaviors and other employee perceptions captured in the FEVS.
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    Mainstream Teachers' Perspectives on Secondary English Learner Engagement in Inclusive Classrooms: Communities of Practice
    (2021-12-17) Gull, Katherine; Hood College Education Department; Hood College Doctoral Program in Organizational Leadership
    Public school systems across the United States face the challenge of effectively educating high school immigrant students who are learning English. In many states, high school English Learner (EL) students are aging out, dropping out, and are not achieving academic success. In the large school system site of this study, the research-based practice was for EL students to be placed in general education or mainstream courses. Mainstreaming was followed as an equitable practice which allowed EL students to simultaneously acquire English and required credits towards graduation. Wanting to explore how general education teachers experienced mainstreaming of their EL students, this qualitative study examined perspectives about EL student inclusion, their sense of efficacy, impact on workload, obstacles, and successes. This study was grounded in learning as a Community of Practice, or according to Wenger (2015), a group of people with a shared passion who learn through interaction, and integrated key second language acquisition theory. The classroom is a learning community where a sense of belonging facilitates interaction through input, output, and feedback. Belonging to the learning Community of Practice builds identity and makes meaning, all critical elements in EL student success. The study involved comparing survey data on the perception of EL students in mainstream classrooms, interview data from mainstream teachers assigned EL students, and EL student engagement data based on class attendance. Data analysis revealed a cycle of learning mainstream teachers experienced when working with EL students; it consisted of five elements, Discovery, Emotional Reaction, Solutions Search, Observation, and Reflection/Learning. The identification and understanding of the cycle of behaviors that occurred in the classroom will enable administrators and system leaders to adjust and effectively support teachers during different stages of learning, increasing EL student access to the classroom Community of Practice. This study justifies support for teachers through professional learning about working with EL students. This study also highlighted the need for policy changes such as requiring pre-service teacher training on how to effectively teach English Learner students.