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- ItemUNDERSTANDING THE EFFECTS OF STOCKING DENSITY AND BIOFOULING CONTROL PRACTICES ON BIOFOULING ON OFF-BOTTOM OYSTER GROW-OUT BAGS (YORK RIVER, VA)(2022-08) Galvan Lam, Zophia Anna; Biology; Virginia Institute of Marine Science REUVirginia, the top producer of Crassostrea virginica (Eastern Oyster) in the United States, supports a fast-growing commercial shellfish aquaculture industry valued at over $30 million. Biofouling is the adhesion of aquatic communities to submerged structures that can have ecologic, biologic, and economic impacts on aquaculture operations. Colonized bags have increased weights that affect handling and blockages that can impede essential water flow, which could affect conditions within grow-out bags. Biofouling contributes to 5-10% of production costs and 20% of the direct costs of an oyster's final market price. This study aimed to (1) quantify and identify fouling communities on floating oyster bags and (2) determine the effects of biofouling control practices (air drying periodically vs not) and stocking density (high, normal, and empty) on biofouling communities growing on mesh settlement plates attached to floating oyster bags. Results indicate that colonizing organisms (Tubeworm fouling and bryozoans) were the most prominent taxa found across most settlement mesh plates. Air drying frequently effectively reduced biofouling, producing significantly lighter wet weights on both mesh plates and grow-out bags than non-air-dried treatments (p < 0.01). Stocking density somewhat reduced biofouling in non-air-dried treatments, albeit not significantly. Understanding which biofouling communities grow on oyster bags and developing mechanisms to control fouling growth can help researchers provide better data for oyster farmers so they can make more informed husbandry decisions.
- ItemAlexey Pajitnov: Ackerman’s Main Three(2023-03-29) Owens, Jared; History; HIST490 - America and the History of Video GamesThis paper uses Tetris Effect: The Game that Hypnotized the World by Dan Ackerman to look into Alexey Pajitnov's life during his creation of Tetris. It uses three main points, Pajitnov’s early interest in puzzles, computers, and mathematics, the release of Tetris in 1984, and Pajitnov's move to the United States to explain how Tetris became the game it is today. These three points in Pajitnov's life seem to explain how Tetris gained its fame.
- ItemFrom Jumpman to Mario: Nintendo’s White Buffalo(2023-02-15) Owens, Jared; HistoryThis paper dives into Jeff Ryan's Super Mario: How Nintendo Conquered America book. The paper examines how Mario and Shigeru Miyamoto changed Nintendo's landscape worldwide. The work also covers Nintendo of America's creation.
- ItemUsing Forestry Techniques to Inform Management of Hemlock Woolly Adelgid at Deer Valley Camp in Somerset, PA(2023-05-14) Briney, Isabella; Biology; BIO490 - Forest Inventory TechniquesHemlock Woolly Adelgid (HWA) is an invasive pest that has invaded the United States from Japan. This aphid species has the potential to eliminate the eastern hemlock tree that happens to be a keystone species along the East Coast of the United State. Insecticides such as Imidacloprid have been known to effectively control Hemlock Woolly Adelgid, but only so much can be used on an acre of land. During this experiment, we inventoried each hemlock tree in each acre and considered whether the tree was producing cones, if it was infected with the pest, the diameter at breast height (DBH), and the canopy percentage to give it a field score. The scores were ranked between 1-4, where 1 is of the least importance (either too young or dead to need insecticide) and 4 is of the utmost importance (large, full canopy, and cone producing). We found there were a few 1s and 4s, but several 2s and 3s. The 3s and 4s should get treated first, and as time goes on, the 2s can get treated as well. The 1s are the last that need treatment, if they need treatment at all.
- ItemShould there be restrictions on dogs welcome in parks?(2023-05-12) Briney, Isabella; BiologyDogs have been in our society since the Paleolithic era around 35,000 years ago. They are found throughout our world in many forms, such as pets, working dogs, service animals, and emotional support animals among other things. They can be as small as a Chihuahua and as big as an Irish Wolfhound, and can range in shape and color. With outdoor recreation becoming more and more popular throughout the years, dogs are becoming a major presence in parks. This can create a problem for the wildlife who reside in these parks, and management implications should begin to be placed on public parks that allow dogs in them.