Kim, Hyang-Sook

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    Using interface cues in online health community boards to change impressions and encourage user contribution
    (Association for Computing Machinery, 2011-05) Kim, Hyang-Sook; Sundar, S. Shyam; Towson University. Department of Mass Communication
    Online health message boards have become popular, as users not only gain information from other users but also share their own experiences. However, as with most venues of user-generated content, there is need to constantly make quality evaluations as one sifts through enormous amounts of content. Can interface cues, conveying (1) pedigree of users posting content and (2) popularity of the posted content, help new users efficiently make credibility assessments? Furthermore, can the assignment of these same cues to their own posts serve to motivate content generation on their part? These questions were investigated in a 2-session between-subjects experiment (N = 99) with a prototype of a message-board that experimentally varied interface cues, and found that popularity indicators are more influential than pedigree indicators for both evaluation of existing content and contribution of new content. Findings also suggest theoretical mechanisms— involving such concepts as perceived authority, bandwagon effects, sense of agency and sense of community—by which cues affect user experience, providing rich implications for designing and deploying interface cues.
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    Interactivity as self-expression: a field experiment with customization and blogging
    (Association for Computing Machinery, 2012-05) Sundar, S. Shyam; Oh, Jeeyun; Bellur, Saraswathi; Jia, Haiyan; Kim, Hyang-Sook; Towson University. Department of Mass Communication
    A paradigmatic quality of interactive interfaces is that they allow users to express themselves, thereby converting message receivers into communication sources. We define this quality as Source Interactivity [26, 29], and test its effects on user experience with a field experiment (N=141) of a portal site featuring cosmetic customization, functional customization and blogging (active versus filter). In demonstrating the psychological influence of source-based interactivity on such outcomes as user engagement, sense of agency, sense of community, intrinsic motivation and attitudes toward the interface, we discuss how designers can use them for creating interactive tools for self-expression.
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    Open captioning as a means of communicating health information: The role of cognitive load in processing entertainment-education content
    (Taylor & Francis, 2020-08-07) Kim, Hyang-Sook; Kim, Kyongseok; Towson University. Department of Mass Communication
    Despite considerable research on entertainment-education, the influence of cognition on viewer appreciation and learning remains unclear. A pretest-posttest laboratory experiment was conducted to examine the effects of explicit health information embedded in a medical drama via video captioning on the processing of the narrative and health information and acquisition of health knowledge. The captions increased cognitive load for health information processing, facilitating recall, and retention of health knowledge. Neither cognitive load for narrative processing nor narrative absorption differed between the captioned and uncaptioned videos. The findings suggest discrete but complementary areas of cognition for entertainment content designed for health education.
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    Can online buddies and bandwagon cues enhance user participation in online health communities?
    (Elsevier, 2014-08) Kim, Hyang-Sook; Sundar, S. Shyam; Towson University. Department of Mass Communication
    Individuals are more likely to obtain information and support from online health communities than offer help to other users (Fox & Jones, 2009; Preece, Nonnecke, & Andrews, 2004). The current study attempts to resolve this problem of under-contribution by proposing two theory-based persuasive strategies—a specific request in the form of an online buddy and collective community feedback in the form of bandwagon cues. A 2 (online buddy: absence vs. presence) by 2 (bandwagon cues: weak vs. strong) between-participants experiment tested the effects of these strategies on psychological outcomes, including perceived responsibility, social presence, sense of community, and perceived helpfulness, as well as their posting attitudes, posting intentions, and website attitudes, across two sessions. Contrary to expectations, we found that the assignment of online buddies in a health community forum leads to negative psychological and behavioral consequences, especially in the absence of strong community feedback. Furthermore, the online buddy feature interacts with bandwagon cues to activate different cognitive processes, leading to differential interpretation of the meanings of those bandwagon cues—either as compliments (in the presence of online buddy) or as unreliable feedback (in the absence of online buddy). Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
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    Effects of fear appeals on communicating potential health risks of unregulated dietary supplements to college students
    (Taylor & Francis, 2014-08-30) Kim, Hyang-Sook; Sheffield, Donna; Almutairi, Talal M.; Towson University. Department of Mass Communication
    Background: Fear appeals are commonly used in health communication to reduce risk. It is not clear, however, whether familiarity with a health topic can lessen the threat intended. The use of unregulated dietary supplements among young adults is one such area that needs study. Purpose: The study examined the effect of fear appeals on self-protective behavior when college students were informed of the risks of consuming the dietary supplement creatine. It focused on students’ responses to fear appeals that varied depending on their familiarity with the product. Methods: Students were assigned to one of 3 groups based on familiarity with creatine. A total of 121 college students viewed advertisements depicting creatine consumption side effects, followed by the main questionnaire including perceived risk, attitudes, and behavioral intention measures. Results: Fear appeal messages were most effective for those least familiar with creatine. Discussion: Familiarity based on previous experience is a factor that must be considered when presenting threatening health information. Translation to Health Education Practice: Health educators and practitioners should inform young adults about risks and proper consumption of dietary supplements before they develop a strong disposition toward the product without accurate knowledge of proper dose and potential side effects.
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    Examining psychological effects of source cues and social plugins on a product review website
    (Elsevier, 2015-08) Kim, Hyang-Sook; Brubaker, Pamela Jo; Seo, Kiwon; Towson University. Department of Mass Communication
    This study examines the psychological effects of heuristic cues on a product review website to gain a better understanding of online agency. A between-participants experiment of 458 college students confirmed the formation of more positive attitudes toward a product review website when an expert rather than a computer/website served as the source of product review information, specifically when the expert source was accompanied by a rating of four stars vs. one star. A product review authored by other users also induced more favorable attitudes toward the website when it was presented with a higher level of star ratings than a lower one. The study also revealed perceived authority and bandwagon heuristics mediated the relationship between the presence of social plugins and favorable attitudes toward the website via credibility perceptions. Findings not only underscored the power of the authority and bandwagon cues when users make quick judgments on product review sites but also discovered a theoretical path that explained the role of social plugins—a seal of credibility—on e-commerce sites. Theoretical and practical implications are also discussed for designing information-based websites.
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    Communicating art, virtually!: psychological effects of technological affordances in a virtual museum
    (Taylor & Francis, 2015-05-27) Sundar, S. Shyam; Go, Eun; Kim, Hyang-Sook; Zhang, Bo; Towson University. Department of Mass Communication
    Museums lean heavily on recent developments in communication technologies to create an authentic experience for online visitors of its galleries. This study examines whether three specific affordances of communication technology—customization, interactivity, and navigability—can provide the personal, social, and physical contexts, respectively, that are necessary for ensuring an enjoyable museum experience. A 2 (presence vs. absence of customizable gallery) × 2 (presence vs. absence of live-chat with others) × 2 (presence vs. absence of 3D navigational tool) between– subjects factorial experiment (N = 126) found that although each affordance is associated with distinct psychological benefits (customization with sense of agency and control, interactivity with reciprocity, and navigability with perceived reality), combining them on the same interface tends to undermine these benefits. In addition, power usage moderates the effectiveness of each affordance on the interface. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
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    Factors influencing the perceived credibility of diet-nutrition information web sites
    (Elsevier, 2016-05) Jung, Eun Hwa; Walsh-Childers, Kim; Kim, Hyang-Sook; Towson University. Department of Mass Communication
    This study investigated the factors that influence the perceived credibility of web sites providing diet and nutrition information. Undergirded by the dual-processing models (i.e., Elaboration Likelihood Model and Heuristic Systematic Model), an online experiment (N 575) was conducted to examine how perceptions of online diet and nutrition information credibility are influenced by source expertise cues and message accuracy; the effects of prior knowledge and interest in the information also were assessed. Results showed that message accuracy increased perceived credibility of the web site regardless of the level of source expertise. However, source expertise had an important effect on website credibility perceptions among those who exhibited low prior knowledge. Finally, message accuracy had a greater impact on web site credibility among those who were highly involved in the issue compared to those who were less involved. The findings increase our understanding of the factors that impact individuals’ processing of online diet and nutrition information and suggest elements practitioners should consider including to create the most effective online sources for diet and nutrition information.
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    College students’ motivations for using podcasts
    (National Association for Media Literacy Education, 2016-01-08) Chung, Mun-Young; Kim, Hyang-Sook; Towson University. Department of Mass Communication
    Despite potential benefits of podcasts for college education, little research has examined students’ psychological drives for using podcasts. To explore the relationship between the use of podcasts and college students’appreciation of them, this study investigated students’ motivations, attitudes and behaviors with regard topodcasts use including their learning environment. Based on a survey with 636 college students, this study foundthat six dimensions of motivations were prominent for podcasts use: (1) voyeurism/social interaction/companionship, (2) entertainment/relaxation/arousal, (3) education/information, (4) pastime/escape, (5) habit, and (6) convenience. In particular, motivations catering to relationship consolidation, excitement and educational achievement better explained the actual use of podcasts as well as students’ appreciation than other motivations identified. In addition, students’ attachment to the medium is a strong predictor of their podcasts use and gratification. Students also used podcasts to satisfy their fashion motivation. Theoretical and practicalimplications of using podcasts for digital literacy in college education were discussed.
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    Motivating contributions to online forums: can locus of control moderate the effects of interface cues?
    (Taylor & Francis, 2015-09-30) Kim, Hyang-Sook; Sundar, S. Shyam; Towson University. Department of Mass Communication
    In an effort to encourage users to participate rather than lurk, online health forums provide authority badges (e.g., guru) to frequent contributors and popularity indicators (e.g., number of views) to their postings. Studies have shown the latter to be more effective, implying that bulletin-board users are motivated by external validation of their contributions. However, no consideration has yet been given to individual differences in the influence of such popularity indicators. Personality psychology suggests that individuals with external, rather than internal, locus of control are more likely to be other-directed and therefore more likely to be motivated by interface cues showing the bandwagon effect of their online posts. We investigate this hypothesis by analyzing data from a 2 (high vs. low authority cue) × 2 (strong vs. weak bandwagon cue) experiment with an online health community. Results show that strong bandwagon cues promote sense of community among users with internal, rather than external, locus of control. When bandwagon cues are weak, bestowal of high authority serves to heighten their sense of agency. Contrary to prediction, weak bandwagon cues appear to promote sense of community and sense of agency among those with external locus of control. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
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    Theoretical Importance of Contingency in Human-Computer Interaction: Effects of Message Interactivity on User Engagement
    (Sage Publications, 2014-05-22) Sundar, S. Shyam; Bellur, Saraswathi; Oh, Jeeyun; Jia, Haiyan; Kim, Hyang-Sook; Towson University. Department of Mass Communication
    A critical determinant of message interactivity is the presence of contingency, that is, the messages we receive are contingent upon the messages we send, leading to a threaded loop of interdependent messages. While this “conversational ideal” is easily achieved in face-to-face and computer-mediated communications (CMC), imbuing contingency in human-computer interaction (HCI) is a challenge. We propose two interface features—interaction history and synchronous chat—for increasing perceptions of contingency, and therefore user engagement. We test it with a five-condition, between-participants experiment (N = 110) on a movie search site. Data suggest that interaction history can indeed heighten perceptions of contingency and dialogue, but is perceived as less interactive than chatting. However, the chat function does not appreciably increase perceived contingency or user engagement, both of which are shown to mediate the effects of message interactivity on attitudes toward the site. Theoretical implications for interactivity research and practical implications for interaction design are discussed.
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    What drives you to check in on Facebook? Motivations, privacy concerns, and mobile phone involvement for location-based information sharing
    (Elsevier, 2016-01) Kim, Hyang-Sook; Towson University. Department of Mass Communication
    Given the popularity of checking in at a location via mobile phone, little research has examined the germane motivations tied to location check-in as a form of in-group electronic word-of-mouth and its relation to the concern of privacy. A survey with 255 college students found that the students' privacy concerns - both online and Facebook specific - did not show any relationship with the motivations of location check-in as a means of information sharing. However, the relationship varied among the non-users of location check-in on Facebook. Involvement with mobile phone showed mixed relationships with check-in motivations - commitment to Facebook, self-development and reputation, and promotional viral communication. Findings not only confirm that young Facebook users are relatively free from the concern of privacy during their location-based information sharing, but also suggest different motivational mechanisms to operate for Facebook users’ viral communication depending on the habitualness of their mobile phone use. Implications are discussed for interpersonal marketing strategies on social networking sites.
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    A functional and structural diagnosis of online health communities sustainability: A focus on resource richness and site design features
    (Elsevier, 2016-10) Kim, Hyang-Sook; Mrotek, Amy; Towson University. Department of Mass Communication
    The reality of online communities’ under-contribution issues has often been clouded with theoretical rather than real-world insight. The present study aims to neutralize this disparity, through content analysis on 196 health websites and online communities to systematically evaluate their functional and structural interfaces - the ingredients for a thriving online environment. Particular attention is paid to what variables equate to successful site traffic and impressions, ultimately providing suggestions to facilitate and optimize user contribution. While the majority of health websites and online health communities offered users fairly rich information about general health concerns, user environments in online health communities significantly lacked both structural and functional cues to encourage user contribution. External sponsorship could mitigate the discrepancy between the real world situations and academic suggestions.
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    Time matters: framing antismoking messages using current smokers' preexisting perceptions of temporal distance to smoking-related health risks
    (Taylor & Francis, 2017-01-17) Kim, Kyongseok; Kim, Hyang-Sook; Towson University. Department of Mass Communication
    This study examined the effects of temporal framing used in messages about the future likelihood of developing smoking-related diseases on intention to quit smoking. Based on construal level theory (CLT), a causal model delineating the relationships among four variables—perceived temporal distance, personal relevance, perceived susceptibility, and behavioral intention—was proposed. The model was validated by an online experiment with a sample of 222 current smokers, revealing the effects of perceived temporal distance on behavioral intention via personal relevance and perceived susceptibility. Following the CLT-grounded model, the effects of different temporal frames (near future vs. distant future) on the four variables were tested. The near-future frame featured a risk perceived to be more temporally proximal (i.e., heart attack), and the distant-future frame featured a risk perceived to be more temporally distant (i.e., larynx cancer) among current smokers. Participants exposed to the near-future frame reported significantly shorter perceived temporal distance, greater personal relevance and perceived susceptibility to the risk portrayed in the message, and greater intention to quit smoking than participants exposed to the distant-future frame. Implications for antismoking communications are discussed.
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    It matters who shares and who reads: persuasive outcomes of location check-ins on Facebook
    (Inderscience, 2018-02-10) Kim, Hyang-Sook; Chung, Mun-Young; Towson University. Department of Mass Communication
    Despite an emerging trend of location check-ins as a means of mobile communication amongst Facebook users, little attention has been devoted to the value of location check-ins as marketing potential. In particular, little is known about how mobile users process and assess location information shared by their friends on Facebook. Undergirded by persuasion knowledge and elaboration likelihood models, a self-instructed online survey with 255 undergraduate students found that friendship tie strength was positively correlated with students’ attitudes towards and perceived credibility of the location information shared by their Facebook friends. However, this relationship was true of those who reported a high level of mobile phone competence rather than those with low mobile phone competence. Prior experience with location sharing on Facebook was also positively correlated with students’ evaluations of the location information. Theoretical and practical implications were discussed.
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    The role of legal and moral norms to regulate the behavior of texting while driving
    (Elsevier, 2018-01) Kim, Hyang-Sook; Towson University. Department of Mass Communication
    Despite a nationwide lawful effort to regulate texting-while-driving behavior, little change has been reported. This study assessed the effect of current legal enforcement on attitudinal and behavioral responses toward texting while driving in conjunction with potential influences of two types of perceived norms—legal and moral. An online survey was conducted with 313 college students recruited from three states where the history of a banning law of texting while driving varied (more than 3 years, less than 1 year, and none). The students self-reported perceived legal norm, perceived moral norm, perceived risk of texting while driving, frequency of texting while driving, attitude toward texting while driving, and intention of texting while driving. General linear model analyses revealed that the mere presence of legal enforcement showed a negative relationship with frequency of behavior only for the state with the banning law in effect more than 3 years. While the perceived legal norm showed inconsistent relationships with outcome variables, the perceived moral norm appeared most promising to discourage texting while driving among young drivers. A banning law for texting-while-driving behavior not only backfired on the actual behavior in a short-term effect, but also required a long-term exposure of the law to change the actual behavior among college students. On the other hand, cultivation of a moral norm to regulate the behavior of texting while driving is particularly encouraged in that the stable nature of this psychological variable can play a role to suppress possible reactance evoked by an external force. Policy makers are encouraged to harness their approach to regulate young drivers’ texting while driving with the strategy that appeals to the drivers’ moral beliefs rather than simply forcing them to comply with the law.
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    Characterising social structural and linguistic behaviours of subgroup interactions: a case of online health communities for postpartum depression on Facebook
    (Inderscience, 2020-07-10) Pak, Jinie; Kim, Hyang-Sook; Rhee, Eun Soo; Towson University. Department of Mass Communication
    Online health communities (OHCs) have become a major source of sharing knowledge and social support for people with health concerns. The present paper aimed to extend the previous understanding of community dynamics of two types of members, contributors and lurkers, in OHCs for postpartum depression (PPD). Multi-level analyses were conducted to identify subgroup formation and different roles of members and their interaction patterns within subgroups. Specifically, social structural behaviours in OHCs on Facebook were analysed at both network and node levels in addition to members’ sentiment and linguistic behaviours which were analysed in light of members’ roles and structural behaviours. Results suggest that structural as well as sentiment and linguistic behaviours of members in OHCs for PPD varied across different groups and roles. While contributors tended to be highly influential as information/support givers, lurkers still formed subgroups to seek for support and information. These findings not only articulated the underlying mechanism of community networks and subgroup formation in OHCs for PPD, but also shed light on ways of facilitating prosperity and sustainability of OHCs.
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    The use of legal and social sanctions as a norming influence on texting while driving
    (Taylor & Francis, 2020-09-10) Kim, Hyang-Sook; Wang, Weirui; Towson University. Department of Mass Communication
    Laws banning texting while driving in the United States have not been highly successful in curbing the target behaviour. The aim of the current study was to explore the influence of normative campaign messages on texting while driving among college students from three states where the length of a ban on the behaviour differed. An online experiment using a 3 (State: more than 3 years vs. less than 1 year vs. no ban) × 2 (Message type: legal sanction vs. social sanction) × 2 (Time: pre- vs. post-message measures) mixed factorial design (N = 115) revealed that one-time exposure to the message containing a legal sanction changed perceived legal consequences regardless of state of residency. Furthermore, the legal sanction message was more effective than the social sanction message not only in fostering an unfavourable attitude toward texting while driving but also in weakening behavioural intention in the state where texting while driving had not been legally banned. The social sanction, on the other hand, was more effective than the legal sanction in the state where the law had been in effect less than 1 year, while its effect was the opposite direction in the state with no legal prohibition. Findings suggest that interventions conveying social norms against the behaviour might create immediate reactance to the intervention message unless it reinforces the ban. Instead, using a public campaign to reinforce the legal consequences of texting while driving is a promising way to minimize or prevent this risky behaviour.
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    The effects of open captions in a medical drama on the acquisition of medical terminology about chronic health conditions related to physical injury
    (Taylor & Francis, 2019-08-14) Kim, Hyang-Sook; Kim, Kyongseok; Towson University. Department of Mass Communication
    Background: Despite previous efforts to improve health literacy through entertainment media, current practice seems to address only a few public health topics. Purpose: We examined the impact of supplementary open captions about medical terminology related to physical injuries that might lead to chronic health conditions on the acquisition and retention of relevant information presented in a medical drama. Methods: We conducted a two-group, between-subjects experiment (no open captions vs. open captions) with 150 adult participants to measure how open captions might help viewers retain medical information without disrupting their enjoyment of the storyline. Results: The open captions helped viewers retain the terms and their definitions without disrupting narrative transportation to the events in the episode. Discussion: As long as the open-captioned medical information was seamlessly woven into the storyline of the episode, it did not prevent the viewers from appreciating the dramatic content of the show. Translation to Health Education Practice: Health educators are encouraged to collaborate with media producers to implement open captions for health and medical information rather than simply monitoring the accuracy of health and medical topics featured in television shows.