Hood College Department of Psychology and Counseling

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    Relationships Among Cultural Competence, Studying Abroad, and Future Career Opportunities
    (2018-04-23) Kefauver, Emily; Kundey, Shannon; Hood College Psychology and Counseling; Hood College Departmental Honors
    This paper offers a review of literature on the effects of cultural competence and studying abroad on future career opportunities. The concept of cultural competence is explored, especially from the viewpoint of a school study abroad experience. Several fields of study – nursing, mental health, teaching, and engineering – are examined. Finally, the study proposes an experiment to examine further whether the perceived cultural competence gained from a study abroad experience will truly enhance future career opportunities.
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    The Development and Validation of the Jones Work-Life Conflict Continuum (JWLCC)
    Jones, Noel; MacDougall, Elizabeth; Hood College Psychology and Counseling; Hood College Departmental Honors
    Today more than ever, people are faced with balancing work and family demands concurrently. The number of households with two working parents who have children has increased from 53.2% in 2000 to 60.2% in 2014, contributing to the dilemma of balancing work and non-work life for the majority of the adult population (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2015). With the increased prevalence of dual working parents in society, the study of work and family interaction has increased recently. Researchers have focused on three main areas of investigation within work and family interaction: work-family conflict, work-family enrichment, and work-life balance. These approaches have assessed the interaction from different perspectives that all capture an important facet of the interaction.
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    The Effect of Offenders’ Education Level on Sentencing Time
    (2017-05) Hunt, Gemma; Farreras, Ingrid; Hood College Psychology and Counseling; Hood College Departmental Honors
    This experiment assessed the effect of three different offender education levels (no high school degree, high school degree, and college degree) on the amount of time they are sentenced for a crime. The study’s hypothesis was that offenders with a lower education level would receive a longer sentencing time than offenders with a higher education level. Ninety-six participants were randomly assigned to three groups: one group read four vignettes about offenders with no high school degree, one group read four vignettes about offenders with a high school degree, and the final group read four vignettes about offenders with a college degree. All participants responded on a number line ranging from five to twenty regarding the number of years they believed each offender should be sentenced. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) compared average sentence lengths by education level and found no statistically significant difference. An independent-samples t-test compared average sentence lengths for offenders without a college degree versus offenders with a college degree and found a statistically significant difference in that offenders with a college education were sentenced to about a year longer than offenders without a college level education.
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    The Effect of Stereotype Threat on Quantitative Reasoning
    (2017-04) Onomake, Belina; Farreras, Ingrid; Hood College Psychology; Hood College Departmental Honors
    Participants (N=172) were given the shortened 2001 version of the SAT quantitative section. A 2 (condition) by 3 (ethnicity) between-subjects factorial design was conducted, in which Caucasians, native-origin African-Americans, and foreign-origin African-Americans were randomly assigned to either a stereotype-threat group or a non-stereotype-threat group. The stereotype-threat group was told the SAT questions measured cognitive ability, while the non- stereotype-threat group was told the SAT questions compared two quantities. An ANOVA found no significant difference for the threat conditions or for the interaction between the threat conditions and the participants’ ethnicity. A significant difference, though, was found for ethnicity alone, in which the Caucasian participants received higher scores on the SAT compared to the native and foreign African-American participants. Additional evaluations, implications, and future directions will be discussed.
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    The Effect of Suspect Race and Degree of Suspect Resistance on Mock Officer Choice of Force
    (2018-04) Kesner, Stephanie; Farreras, Ingrid; Hood College Psychology and Counseling; Hood College Departmental Honors
    With increasing focus on police misconduct surrounding use of force with individuals from minority groups, this study focused on perceptions of police and use of force. A 3 x 3 between-subjects factorial design determined the effect that suspect race and degree of suspect resistance have on participants’, acting as police officers, choice of force. A total of 153 participants were randomly assigned to receive one of nine vignettes in which they viewed a photograph of a suspect and read about a crime scene in which the suspect did not comply with the officer’s request to put hands in the air and instead displayed one of three levels of resistance. Participants indicated which of six levels of force they would use to subdue the threat. There was a statistically significant main effect for suspect resistance level but not for suspect race.
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    Crossing Cultural Barriers: The Relationship Between Studying Abroad and the Personalities of College Students
    (2017-05) Lessard, Anne; Trent, Jason; Farreras, Ingrid; Hood College Psychology; Hood College Departmental Honors
    This paper explores the relationship between personality traits and studying abroad. Previous research suggested that studying abroad changes some of students’ personality traits. Participants consisted of 128 college students who belonged to one of three groups: those who studied abroad, those who are planning to study abroad, and those not planning to study abroad. All participants took a survey rating their personality measures and answering questions about their study abroad experiences or lack thereof. There was a significant difference among the three groups in openness, conscientiousness and agreeableness ratings of how participants perceived they should be affected by studying abroad. Also, students who studied abroad have traveled to significantly more countries than students who have not studied abroad.
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    How Gender and Type of Crime Affect Perception and Proposed Treatment of Incarcerated Individuals
    (2023-04) Williams, Hailey; Moreland, Molly; Kundey, Shannon; Sanders, Jolene; Hood College Psychology and Counseling; Hood College Departmental Honors
    State prisons across the United States provide care for over one million people (Ghandoosh, 2019). Policies within the criminal justice system, however, have been seen to differently affect the treatment towards various groups of people as well as their health and mental health outcomes (Ghidei, Ramos, Brousseau, & Clarke, 2018). Human perceptions have been seen to undermine the objectivity of criminal investigations within the criminal justice system (Meterko & Cooper, 2022). The present study further explores the potential role of human biases in prison policies, specifically between genders and type of crime committed. A total of 245 participants were included in the 2x2 factorial design and were randomly assigned to one of four experimental groups. Participants answered questions designed to measure their perception and proposed treatment of an incarcerated individual who was a male or female who had committed aggravated assault or motor vehicle theft. Results from the two main 2x2 factorial ANOVAs indicated that perception and proposed treatment of incarcerated individuals were not statistically different for males or females, or for nonviolent or violent crimes. Overall results generally align with theories of perception including implicit theories, two senses of humanness, mind perception theory, and stereotype content model.  
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    The Effects of Comprehensive Sexual Education on Abortion Attitudes
    (2023-04-28) Cautero, Kathryn; Kundey, Shannon; McManus, Jessica; Gricus, Michelle; Hood College Psychology and Counseling; Hood College Departmental Honors
    The weakening of abortion care protection policies in the United States has sparked demand for appropriate education on the reproductive care process. My research examines the effect of sexual education type (comprehensive and abstinence-only) on abortion attitudes. I hypothesized that those with a history of comprehensive sexual education would be more accepting of an abortion decision, despite variations in the situation, than those with a history of an abstinence-only education. The results indicated no significant effect on the type or presence of sexual education in middle school, high school, or college, on abortion attitudes. However, abortion attitudes based on situation exist, making the debate less dichotomized. In addition, female and Democrat participants expressed significantly more support towards abortion decisions than male and Republican participants.
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    Lyrical Seduction The Effect of Music on Sexual Appeal in Female Young Adult Populations
    (2017-05) Larson, Jeffery; Oliver, Diane; Hood College Psychology; Hood College Departmental Honors
    Music has several effects on listeners, and has been shown to affect attitude, perception, and behavior. This study used a pretest-posttest mixed factorial design to assess the effect of sexually suggestive music on self-perceived appeal in participating in same-sex and opposite-sex sexual activity. No between-subject effect or interaction effect was found. A within-subjects effect was found, indicating a confounding variable across all conditions unrelated to the independent variable. The results of this study in context of previous knowledge, as well as possible reasons for the within subjects effects are discussed.
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    Do Fathers Know Best? Associations between Paternal Parenting and Effective Management of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms
    (2016-05) Gooch, Ingrid M.; Oliver, Diane; Hood College Psychology; Hood College Departmental Honors
    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by impulsivity, hyperactivity, and difficulty sustaining attention. Children diagnosed with ADHD experience impediments in their academics, maneuvering household experiences, and socializing with other children. Behavior problems are also common. While literature emphasizes maternal involvement in treating symptoms of ADHD in children, there is a gap regarding the paternal role. The purpose of this study is to explore the methods of discipline previously utilized by fathers with their children diagnosed with ADHD and the adult child’s current psychological well-being. Results provide a preliminary exploration of fathers’ roles in parenting their children with ADHD. Future research should focus on the continued examination paternal influences on psychological well- being of individuals with ADHD.
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    A Comparison of Stress Levels Between Student-Athletes and Non-Athletes at a Division III Institution
    (2018) Sexton, Alexander J.; Oliver, Diane; Hood College Psychology; Hood College Departmental Honors
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    The Relationship Between Minority Student Organization Membership and Willingness to Seek Mental Health Treatment, Mediated by Ethnic Identity
    (2022-04-21) Rowe, Greighson; Farreras, Ingrid; Hood College Psychology
    The following paper explored the relationship between ethnic minority student organization membership and involvement and willingness to seek professional mental health treatment, as mediated by ethnic identity. The hypotheses were that the greater the involvement in ethnic minority organizations, the greater the ethnic identity of the students, and that this mediator variable would be positively correlated with their attitudes toward seeking professional mental help. Independent sample t-tests comparing students involved and not involved in ethnic minority organizations found no statistically significant differences in help-seeking attitudes, but significant differences in ethnic identity. A linear regression with mediation analysis did not find significant correlations between degree of student involvement, ethnic identity, and help-seeking attitudes, but post-hoc LSD comparisons following a multivariate analysis of variance found significant race differences in help-seeking attitudes, with biracial/multiracial participants showing more willingness than Latinx/Hispanic participants to seek treatment. This study sheds light on the specific role student organizations may have on college initiatives to address mental health concerns on campus.
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    The Relationship between Belief in a Just World and Victim Reporting, Self-Blame, and Perpetrator Blame
    (2020-04-27) Basile, Layla; Jongman-Sereno, Katrina; Hood College Departement of Psychology and Counseling; Hood College Departmental Honors
    This study examined belief in a just world (BJW), attributional style, perceptions of police, and approach/avoidance motivation in victims’ likelihood of reporting their victimization to police, blaming themselves, and blaming the perpetrator in hypothetical scenarios. Participants completed measures of the Attributional Style Questionnaire, perceptions of police, and Behavioral Activation/Inhibition Systems. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two Stroop task conditions to manipulate BJW. The BJW Scale was given after the Stroop task as a manipulation check. Finally, participants read four victim scenarios and reported their reactions including likelihood of reporting to police, self-blame, and perpetrator-blame. The BJW manipulation was unsuccessful and did not predict any scenario reactions. However, the BJW Scale, internal and global attribution styles, having positive perceptions of police, and approach motivation were positively correlated with a greater likelihood of police reporting. Implications, limitations, and future directions are discussed.
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    Mental Health Providers’ Attitudes Toward Mental Illness and Intervention
    (2020-04-27) Spoor, Brittany; Farreras, Ingrid; Smith, Atiya; Gricus, Michelle; Hood College Department of Counseling and Psychology; Hood College Departmental Honors
    This study examined the attitudes held by mental health professionals toward mental illness and intervention. The study’s hypothesis was that there will be clear differences in attitudes toward mental illness and intervention depending on the demographics of the mental health provider. Psychologists will show low willingness to treat more severe mental health diagnoses, those with an Associate and Bachelor’s degree will be less willing to a treat client with a severe diagnosis than those with a Masters or PhD, and Psychologists will report using Cognitive Behavioral Therapy more than other providers. All participants were given a survey to fill out in which they selected their willingness to treat mental health diagnoses as well as rated their attitudes toward treatment. A snowball sample was used to collect data from 26 mental health providers. Since inferential analyses were not possible, only descriptive data were reported.
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    Social Media Usage and Its Relationship to Personality
    (2019-04-19) LaForce, Dana; Psychology and Counseling; Hood College Departmental Honors
    Today, about 3.03 billion people are active social media users, with the most popular platforms being Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, Snapchat, and Pinterest. Over half of all past social media studies have focused exclusively on Facebook, however, it’s necessary to evaluate any differential influences of newer platforms. The current study explores why young adults use Instagram and Snapchat and measures how account statistics, attitudes, and usage of these two platforms, correlate with personality. Results showed that users have more Instagram followers but use Snapchat more frequently, and most use these platforms to gain knowledge about others. Introverted individuals socially profited more from social media usage by interacting with others and posting content more frequently, thereby displaying a social compensation effect.
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    The Relationship Between Abortion Attitudes and Ratings of Responsibility for Unintended Pregnancies
    (2019-04-19) Tapscott, Amanda; Psychology and Counseling; Hood College Departmental Honors
    Previous studies have looked at correlations between ratings of women’s responsibility for unintended pregnancies and abortion attitudes. This study presents six vignettes describing various causes of pregnancies and asks participants to rate the responsibility of women, men, and external groups on a 7-point scale. I hypothesize that less religious, more liberal individuals will approve of abortion and rate external groups as more responsible than the pregnant couple for pregnancies caused by the inability to gain access to or afford birth control products or condoms and birth control product or condom malfunctions. Results confirmed this hypothesis for the former cause. The main implication of this study is that pro-choice individuals may believe that birth control companies and the government could do more to make birth control products more accessible or affordable and that the government could do more to prevent sexual assault.
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    Mental Health Stigma in a Politically Polarized 2019
    (2019-04-19) McAlister, Abbey; Psychology and Counseling; Hood College Departmental Honors
    This research examines the relationship between political views and mental health stigma. Though past research has examined the framing of mental illness and the predictive ability of political party affiliation in regard to mental health stigma separately, the current research seeks to combine the two in order to create a broader understanding of the connections between attitudes toward mental health and political affiliation and ideology. Two-hundred-and-fifty-one participants from the mid-Atlantic were randomly assigned to one of five groups: a control group answered a questionnaire with no vignette; experimental groups were presented with the questionnaire and one of the following vignettes: information about someone with treated depression, information about someone with untreated depression, information about someone with untreated heroin addiction, or information about someone with treated heroin addiction. Several ANOVAs revealed partial support for the hypotheses regarding political affiliation and mental health, framing effects, and gender. T-tests indicated partial support for hypotheses regarding experience with mental health and mental health stigma.