ItemExamining Multiteam Systems Across Context and Type: A Historiometric Analysis of Failed MTS Performance(Frontiers, 2022-03-10) Campbell, Lauren N. P.; Torres, Elisa M.; Zaccaro, Stephen J.; Zhou, Steven; Hedrick, Katelyn N.; Wallace, David; Luning, Celeste Raver; Zakzewski, Joanna E.Multiteam systems (MTSs) are complex organizational forms comprising interdependent teams that work towards their own proximal goals within and across teams to also accomplish a shared superordinate goal. MTSs operate within high-stakes, dangerous contexts with high consequences for suboptimal performance. We answer calls for nuanced exploration and cross-context comparison of MTSs “in the wild” by leveraging the MTS action sub-phase behavioral taxonomy to determine where and how MTS failures occur. To our knowledge, this is the first study to also examine how key MTS attributes (boundary status, goal type) influence MTS processes and performance. We conducted historiometric analysis on 40 cases of failed MTS performance across various contexts (e.g., emergency response, commercial transportation, military, and business) to uncover patterns of within- and between-team behaviors of failing MTSs, resulting in four themes. First, component teams of failing MTSs over-engaged in within-team alignment behaviors (vs. between-team behaviors) by enacting acting, monitoring, and recalibrating behaviors more often within than between teams. Second, failing MTSs over-focused on acting behaviors (vs. monitoring or recalibrating) and tended to not fully enact the action sub-phase cycle. Third and fourth, boundary status and goal type exacerbated these behavioral patterns, as external and physical MTSs were less likely to enact sufficient between-team behaviors or fully enact the action sub-phase cycle compared to internal and intellectual MTSs. We propose entrainment as a mechanism for facilitating MTS performance wherein specific, cyclical behavioral patterns enacted by teams align to facilitate goal achievement via three multilevel behavioral cycles (i.e., acting-focused, alignment-focused, and adjustment-focused). We argue that the degree to which these cycles are aligned both between teams and with the overarching MTS goal determines whether and how an MTS fails. Our findings add nuance beyond single-context MTS studies by showing that the identified behavioral patterns hold both across contexts and almost all types of MTS action-phase behaviors. We show that these patterns vary by MTS boundary status and goal type. Our findings inform MTS training best practices, which should be structured to integrate all component teams and tailored to both MTS attributes (i.e., boundary status, goal type) and situation type (e.g., contingency planning). ItemWHO WANTS TO BE HERE? Empirically Investigating Motivation and Engagement During Leader Development(The Journal of Leadership Education, 2022-07) Wallace, David; Zaccaro, Stephen J.We present a framework for understanding the relationship between individual differences in leaders’ motivations and their engagement in leader development, and we empirically test that framework across three different operationalizations of engagement, demonstrating that the motivation to develop as a leader (MTDL) is distinct from other motivational constructs (specifically, motivation to lead and motivation to learn) and that MTDL differentially predicts engagement in leader development. Finally, we provide evidence that motivation and engagement mutually reinforce each other in a virtuous spiral during leader development. ItemJust what do we think we are doing? Learning outcomes of leader and leadership development(Elsevier, 2021-01-23) Wallace, David; Torres, Elisa M.; Zaccaro, Stephen J.The scientific advancement of leader and leadership development has offered various conceptualizations and operationalizations of evaluation criteria. However, because the complex learning that occurs during leader and leadership development is typically ignored, current leader and leadership development evaluation criteria do not fully capture the multidimensional and temporal nature of learning which serves as a critical mediating mechanism between training and more distal outcomes. Further, evaluations of leadership programs tend to focus on individual (i.e., leader development) outcomes without consideration of collective (i.e., leadership development) outcomes. Thus, we present a comprehensive typology of leader and leadership development learning outcomes that elucidates the multidimensional and multilevel nature of such outcomes and provides greater construct definition and precision. Our purpose is to integrate multiple theoretical perspectives, generating a more precise classification to provide researchers and practitioners assistance in 1) designing and evaluating the effectiveness of leader and leadership development, and 2) clarifying the limits of generalizability of both conceptualizations and empirical research across learning outcomes. ItemPersonality Consistency and Situational Influences on Behavior(Sage Journals, 2018-06-21) Green, Jennifer P.; Dalal, Reeshad S.; Swigart, Kristen L.; Bleiberg, Melissa A.; Wallace, David; Hargrove, Amber K.This article examines within-person consistency in personality expression across situations as an individual difference variable that is distinct from the typically studied personality trait level. The focus of the study is the manner in which personality consistency (a conceptualization of personality strength) influences the choice and interpretation of situations and, ultimately, the enactment of organizational citizenship behavior. We conducted an experience sampling study of 167 employees over 10 workdays. At each survey, participants reported their conscientiousness, agreeableness, situation perceptions, and organizational citizenship behavior. Results demonstrated that even after controlling for the linear and quadratic effects of personality trait level (and several other variables): (1) personality consistency increased within-person consistency in organizational citizenship behavior across situations and (2) this relationship was partially mediated by perceived consistency of situational strength and trait-relevant situational content. More broadly, the findings show that individual differences in personality are not restricted solely to the personality trait level. Rather, within-person consistency in personality expression across situations is itself an important individual difference: one that possesses appreciable behavioral consequences in the workplace and one that, consequently, is deserving of considerable future research.