- ItemBigger Bang for Your Buck: Using Natural Buffers in the Maryland Watershed Implementation Plan and Chesapeake Bay Restoration(2012-04) Thorpe, Emily; Lewis, Michael; Environmental StudiesThe Chesapeake Bay is one of the world’s most productive and biologically diverse estuaries; however, it is suffering from a confluence of environmental abuses from agriculture, sprawling development, nutrient and sediment pollution, and a drastic loss of natural filters. The Chesapeake is not only a national, but also a global test case for environmental rule making and the decisions we make about how to restore it will have broad and profound implications. As of 2009, the U.S. EPA has required Bay states to develop Watershed Implementation Plans (WIPs) that address how they plan on meeting the Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) for nitrogen, phosphorus, and sediment as calculated by the EPA. Although the EPA found Maryland’s WIP to be the most substantial of the Bay states, the MD WIP neglects the non-point source pollution problem and directs most of its attention to point source pollution in the form of wastewater treatment plants. The MD WIP’s neglect of natural buffers, such as forests and wetlands, is a predictable failure, partially attributable to a larger cultural fixation on technology and measurability that is representative of pollution abatement policy across the nation. This fixation not only contributes to the breakdown of rural culture, but it also masks the consequences of growth and delays and dismisses the importance of controlling non-point source pollution. Natural buffers have an inherent ability to control non-point source pollution and should no longer be reserved solely for agriculturalists. Through appropriate policy reformations and innovations, natural buffers can become a key resource in Chesapeake Bay restoration.
- ItemSurvivability of Bacteria on Blood Glucose Testing Strips(2019) Nalesnik, Meghan; Health SciencesObjective: Our research focus is to determine exactly how long clinically significant organisms, Escherichia coli 0157:H7, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VRE) survive on blood glucose testing strips. Design: Four separate tubes oftrypticase soy broth (TSB) were inoculated with each of the chosen test organisms and then incubated at 3 7°C overnight. The next day they were removed from incubation to slow down their growth. To determine the number of colony forming units (CFU) in each sample, dilutions of each organism were plated onto Mueller Hinton agar. The dilution with the most reliable colony count was used to calculate the dilution needed to create a 100,000 CFU/mL of phosphate buffered saline (pH 7.2) organism load. The blood glucose testing strips were inoculated with 1 0µL of inoculate at the non-electrical end of the strip and 1 0µL of inoculate was pipetted onto the blood collection site directly for a total of 20µL. Every day thereafter, a strip corresponding to each organism was pressed to a designated section on a CHROMagar™ plate for 30 seconds and then removed in order to replicate how long a blood glucose test strip would be handled in a clinical setting. The plate was then incubated at 3 7°C for 24 hours and observed for growth. Above the strip placement site, a reference sample consisting of a pure culture of each organism was swabbed onto the agar as a positive control. The phosphate buffered saline diluent served as a negative control. Setting: This research took place in the Medical Laboratory Science Program laboratories at Salisbury University, Maryland. Results: Each organism survived as follows: Escherichia coli 0157:H7, only one colony per day for days 42-45; Pseudomonas aeruginosa, colonies were too numerous to count for the first five days and then their number greatly declined to less than five colonies until day 11; methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), colonies were too numerous to count; and vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VRE), colonies were also too numerous to count. Conclusion: Even though the surfaces of a blood glucose strip are non-nutritive and desiccated, clinically significant organisms survive for many days, making these strips a potentially important source of infection when they become contaminated.
- ItemDo You Run The Risk for ITBS?(2019) Flax, Rebecca; Health and Sport SciencesIliotibial Band Syndrome (ITBS) is a common overuse injury that affects runners worldwide. ITBS is caused by the impingement of the Iliotibial band (1TB) within the condyles on the outside area of the knee that causes pain and tenderness. This pain hinders a runner's ability to complete long distance runs. Treatment of ITBS is often mismanaged because it is difficult to identify and there are many opinions on the best treatment method. I will examine common causes of this syndrome, treatments at home or during physical therapy, and the rate of the syndrome's re-occurrence. I will also explore treatment modalities that best help manage and treat the injury and also prevent it from occurring chronically. This research will present a clearer understanding and treatment of ITBS, so that individuals that suffer may be easily able to recognize the issue. ITBS is difficult to treat once it occurs. If not treated properly, the syndrome is more likely to have a higher rate of re-occurrence (9). Treatment options to decrease the occurrence of this syndrome will be addressed. It is anticipated that when treated properly by a health care professional, the rate of re-occurrence will dramatically decrease compared to at-home treatment or being left untreated.
- ItemDouble Jeopardy: Employment Discrimination Experienced by Returning Citizens(2019) Brown, Eleanor; Social WorkNearly one in three U.S. adults, approximately 70 million citizens, have a criminal record (Goggins & DeBacco, 2015). The United States continues to have the highest incarceration rate globally, even though according to the U.S. Department of Justice's Bureau of Justice Statistics, the U.S. incarceration rate is currently on a decline, the lowest since 1996. Even with the decline, the United States imprisons twenty-five percent of the world's incarcerated individuals, yet is home to approximately four percent of the world's population. As incarcerated individuals transition into returning citizens upon release, they often face employment discrimination despite having served their time. These experiences are like a "double jeopardy." This discrimination often starts with the first employment application submission, as 76% of returning citizens experience job discrimination while submitting a job application and only 12.5% of employers report being open to hiring a returning citizen ("Research supports fair change policies", 2016). With between 60 to 75% of returning citizens unsuccessfully securing employment within their first year of release, this contributes to higher rates of poverty which not only impacts the individual but also their families and communities (Von Berger & Bressler, 2016). Even when a returning citizen secures employment, within their first years of release they face hurdles in seeking stable, long-term, financially secure employment, such as a criminal background check, recent occupational experiences, and correct documentation. With no previous research conducted on employment discrimination on Maryland's Lower Eastern Shore, information is needed to determine the employment experiences of returning citizens on Maryland's Lower Eastern Shore when seeking and securing employment. The purpose of this study is to examine the employment experiences of returning citizens who have returned to their communities on Maryland's Lower Eastern Shore (Somerset, Wicomico, and Worcester counties). The study contained a usable sample of forty-four respondents (n=44), and results showed that receiving an education and completing a job training program while incarcerated significantly increased a returning citizen's ability to secure employment upon release. Additionally, the survey showed that the food/serving and construction/extraction industries were more likely to hire returning citizens based upon the reported successful employment of the survey participants. Based on findings and literature review, recommendations to help assuage the impact of incarceration include initiating a Ban the Box campaign in Wicomico County, Maryland, expanding federal bonding opportunities, bringing about greater community awareness of the Maryland Re-Entry Initiative, and increasing the programming capabilities and funding for community organizations working with returning citizens.
- ItemEvaluation of Intensive Care Mechanical Ventilator Response Time During Varying Levels of Inspiratory Effort(2019) Donley, Sarah; Health SciencesObjective: Mechanical ventilators must be responsive to a patient's variable inspiratory demand. Responsiveness is one attribute used to compare these expensive, but necessary lifesaving devices. Under varying levels of inspiratory effort, triggering performance was compared between the Maguet Servo-i and Respironics Esprit ventilators. Methods: The Ingmar ASL 5000 Breathing Simulator was used to provide normal respiratory mechanics (compliance of 50 mL/cm H2O; resistance, 3 cm H2O/L/s; spontaneous rate of 15 breaths/min) and inspiratory muscle pressures of 10, 15, and 20 cm H2O for 5-minutes each. The simulator was connected to each ventilator with the same settings (pressure support (PS) of 10 cm H2O; positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) of 0; and, a trigger flow of 3 L/min). Trigger response time, time from spontaneous effort (SoE) to a minimum pressure (Pmin), and the maximum pressure drop during triggering were collected. Results: The Esprit ventilator trigger response time and time from SoE to a Pmin decreased under conditions of increased inspiratory effort. The Servo-i trigger response time and time from SoE to Pmin increased with rising inspiratory muscle pressure. Both ventilators demonstrated a greater maximum pressure drop during triggering with each increase in inspiratory muscle pressure. However, for an inspiratory muscle pressure of 15 and 20 cm H2O, the drop in pressure was much larger for the Servo-i. Conclusions: Both ventilators are suitable for clinical use, however, the Respironics Esprit ventilator demonstrated a better response to a high ventilatory demand. A potential reason for this is the greater peak inspiratory flow rate (PIFR) capability of the Esprit ventilators. The Esprit's internal flow generator is a turbine and seems to be capable of a faster initial flow than the pneumatic flow design of the Servo-i.