Upholding Black Life And Dignity In The Eleventh Ward: The Establishment Of Provident Hospital And Other Businesses, Organizations, And Institutions In Segregated Baltimore, Maryland 1894-1930
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Type of WorkText
DepartmentHistory and Geography
ProgramMaster of Arts
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This thesis provides a historical analysis of the growth and development of African American established institutions, businesses, and communities in the Eleventh Ward of Baltimore, Maryland, during the Jim Crow Era. Beginning in the 1800s Blacks in Baltimore organized to establish viable entities. One of which was Provident Hospital. It was the first and only African American owned and operated medical facility in Maryland. It provided the impetus for other African Americans businesses and institutions. Its iconic presence united African Americans to collectively stand against Baltimore's segregationist community. This thesis chronicles the accomplishment and failures of the first African American established institutions, businesses, and organizations in the Eleventh Ward of Baltimore. African Americans of the Eleventh Ward did not acquiesce to segregation, and they did not allow racism to prevent them from obtaining jobs, education, and decent housing. Blacks of the Eleventh Ward continually fought for equality.