Regulatory enforcement, politics, and institutional distance: OSHA inspections 1990-2010
Links to Fileshttps://ideas.repec.org/p/tow/wpaper/2012-02.html
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Makowsky, Michael D.
Type of Workapplication/pdf
DepartmentTowson University. Department of Economics
Citation of Original PublicationJuergen Jung & Michael D. Makowsky, 2012. "Regulatory Enforcement, Politics, and Institutional Distance: OSHA Inspections 1990-2010," Working Papers 2012-02, Towson University, Department of Economics, revised Apr 2013.
United States. Occupational Safety and Health Agency
We explore the determinants of inspection outcomes across 1.6 million Occupational Safety and Health Agency audits from 1990 through 2010. We find that discretion in enforcement differs in state and federally conducted inspections. State agencies are more sensitive to local economic conditions, finding fewer standard violations and fewer serious violations as unemployment increases. Larger companies receive greater lenience in multiple dimensions. Inspector issued fines and final fines, after negotiated reductions, are both smaller during Republican presidencies. Quantile regression analysis reveals that Presidential and Congressional party affiliations have their greatest impact on the largest negotiated reductions in fines.