PLANNING EFFECTUAL GROWTH: A STUDY OF EFFECTUATION AND CAUSATION IN BUSINESS PLANS (SUMMARY)
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Groen, Aard J.
Type of Work15 pages
Citation of Original PublicationKraaijenbrink, Jeroen; Ratinho, Tiago; and Groen, Aard (2011) "PLANNING EFFECTUAL GROWTH: A STUDY OF EFFECTUATION AND CAUSATION IN BUSINESS PLANS (SUMMARY)," Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research: Vol. 31 : Iss. 4 , Article 15.
Empirical research on the effectiveness of planned/causal and emergent/effectual approaches to entrepreneurship has provided mixed and contradictory results. One possible reason is that although business plans are generally associated with a planned/causal approach, they also contain indicators of effectual approaches. Along that line, this paper contributes to the ongoing debate by comparing the written business plans of micro-firms and small firms on indicators of effectuation and causation.