Examining The Association Between Risk Factors And Coronary Artery Disease Among Women And Men Aged 25 Years And Older: Differentials By Race And Gender
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Type of WorkText
DepartmentPublic Health and Policy
ProgramDoctor of Public Health
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Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality for women and men in the United States (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2015). Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common type of cardiovascular disease and the leading cause of death in both women and men (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2015). Over the past several decades, CVD and CAD mortality rates have decreased (Ford, et al., 2007). Since 1984, the absolute number of CVD deaths annually among females has exceeded that of males (Mosca, Barrett-Connor, & Wenger, 2011). The CAD mortality rate for women aged 35-44 years increased by approximately 1.3% between1997 and 2002 (Ford & Capewell, Coronary Heart Disease Mortality among young adults in the U.S. from 1980 through 2002: Concealed leveling of mortality rates, 2007). Racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities as risk factors for heart disease have been examined (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2005). However, information comparing the probability of morbidity of CAD when grouping various risk factors, or using risk profiles, is limited. This study used secondary analysis of National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES). The study population included U.S. adults aged 25 years and older. Chi-square tests were used for bivariate analyses to show relationships between the independent variables and CAD. Multiple logistic regression was used for multivariate analysis to evaluate the relationships between the independent variables and CAD as well as to evaluate these relationships when controlling for race, gender, and age. Statistical analysis by race showed that Caucasians, men, and older people (50 years and older) are more likely to have CAD. Caucasians also had more significant risk factors for CAD in comparison to Hispanics and African Americans. This study showed that hypertension, smoking, and diabetes were the most dominant risk factors for developing CAD and physical activity lessens the risk for the development of CAD. However, the odds for the significant risk factors of high blood pressure and diabetes were greater for women when compared to the significant risk factors of smoking and diabetes. Two primary conclusions from this study can be drawn which have prevention and policy implications: 1) All race groups can benefit by decreasing rates of diabetes, and 2) there is strong support for the social determinants of health concerning education and income as factors that will aid in the improvement of CAD outcomes for African Americans.