Enhanced bioremediation of RDX and Co-Contaminants perchlorate and nitrate using an anaerobic dehalogenating consortium in a fractured rock aquifer

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Citation of Original Publication

"Lorah, Michelle M. et al. Enhanced bioremediation of RDX and Co-Contaminants perchlorate and nitrate using an anaerobic dehalogenating consortium in a fractured rock aquifer. Chemosphere 294 (May 2022), 133674. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2022.133674."


This work was written as part of one of the author's official duties as an Employee of the United States Government and is therefore a work of the United States Government. In accordance with 17 U.S.C. 105, no copyright protection is available for such works under U.S. Law.
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The potential neurotoxic and carcinogenic effects of the explosives compound RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) on human health requires groundwater remediation strategies to meet low cleanup goals. Bioremediation of RDX is feasible through biostimulation of native microbes with an organic carbon donor but may be less efficient, or not occur at all, in the presence of the common co-contaminants perchlorate and nitrate. Laboratory tests compared biostimulation with bioaugmentation to achieve anaerobic degradation of RDX, perchlorate, and nitrate; a field pilot test was then conducted in a fractured rock aquifer with the selected bioaugmentation approach. Insignificant reduction of RDX, perchlorate, or nitrate was observed by the native microbes in microcosms, with or without biostimulation by addition of lactate. Tests of the RDX-degrading ability of the microbial consortium WBC-2, originally developed for dehalogenation of chlorinated volatile organic compounds, showed first-order biodegradation rate constants ranging from 0.57 to 0.90 per day (half-lives 1.2 to 0.80 days). WBC-2 sustained degradation without daughter product accumulation when repeatedly amended with RDX and lactate for a year. In microcosms with groundwater containing perchlorate and nitrate, RDX degradation began without delay when bioaugmented with 10% WBC-2. Slower RDX degradation occurred with 3% or 5% WBC-2 amendment, indicating a direct relation with cell density. Transient RDX daughter compounds included methylene dinitramine, MNX, and DNX. With WBC-2 amendment, nitrate concentrations immediately decreased to near or below detection, and perchlorate degradation occurred with half-lives of 25–34 days. Single-well injection tests with WBC-2 and lactate showed that the onset of RDX degradation coincided with the onset of sulfide production, which was affected by the initial perchlorate concentration. Biodegradation rates in the pilot injection tests agreed well with those measured in the microcosms. These results support bioaugmentation with an anaerobic culture as a remedial strategy for sites contaminated with RDX, nitrate, and perchlorate.