Motivation to learn by age, education, and literacy skills among working‑age adults in the United States





Citation of Original Publication

Yamashita, T., Smith, T.J., Sahoo, S. et al. Motivation to learn by age, education, and literacy skills among working-age adults in the United States. Large-scale Assess Educ 10, 1 (2022).


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This study highlighted how particular intersections of personal characteristics were related to Motivation to Learn (MtL) among adults. MtL is a prerequisite for adult education and training participation. However, little is known about MtL across subpopulations due to several methodological limitations. This study developed a national profile of MtL by key subpopulations that are defined by combinations of age, gender, education level, and literacy proficiency in the United States. Data were obtained from 2012/2014/2017 Program for International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC) restricted use file (N = 8400). The alignment optimization (AO) method was employed to estimate subpopulation means of a PIAAC-based latent MtL construct. Subpopulations with younger age, greater educational attainment, and higher literacy proficiency showed significantly greater MtL.