Nonlinear Spectrum Modulation in the Anomalous Dispersion Regime Using Second- and Third-Order Solitons





Citation of Original Publication

De Menezes, Thiago D. S., Chaoran Tu, Valentin Besse, Maurice O’Sullivan, Vladimir S. Grigoryan, Curtis R. Menyuk, and Ivan T. Lima Jr. 2022. "Nonlinear Spectrum Modulation in the Anomalous Dispersion Regime Using Second- and Third-Order Solitons" Photonics 9, no. 10: 748.


This work was written as part of one of the author's official duties as an Employee of the United States Government and is therefore a work of the United States Government. In accordance with 17 U.S.C. 105, no copyright protection is available for such works under U.S. Law.
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We study the robustness of a nonlinear frequency-division multiplexing (NFDM) system, based on the Zakharov-Shabat spectral problem (ZSSP), that is comprised of two independent quadrature phase-shift keyed (QPSK) channels modulated in the discrete spectrum associated with two distinct eigenvalues. Among the many fiber impairments that may limit this system, we focus on determining the limits due to third-order dispersion, the Raman effect, amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) noise from erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs), and fiber losses with lumped gain from EDFAs. We examine the impact of these impairments on a 1600-km system by analyzing the Qfactor calculated from the error vector magnitude (EVM) of the received symbols. We found that the maximum launch power due to these impairments is: 13 dBm due to third-order dispersion, 11 dBm due to the Raman effect, 3 dBm due to fiber losses with lumped gain, and 2 dBm due to these three impairments combined with ASE noise. The maximum launch power due to all these impairments combined is comparable to that of a conventional wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) system, even though WDM systems can operate over a much larger bandwidth and, consequently, have a much higher data throughput when compared with NFDM systems. We find that fiber losses in practical fiber transmission systems with lumped gain from EDFAs is the most stringent limiting factor in the performance of this NFDM system