Barriers to Distance Education: A Factor-Analytic Study

Author/Creator ORCID





Citation of Original Publication

Muilenburg, Lin; Berge, Zane L.; Barriers to Distance Education: A Factor-Analytic Study; The American Journal of Distance Education. 15(2): 7-22 (2009);


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This is an original preprint of an article published by Taylor & Francis in on 24 Sep 2009, available online:


This article reports on a large‐scale (n = 2,504), exploratory factor analysis that determined the underlying constructs that comprise barriers to distance education. The ten factors found were (1) administrative structure, (2) organizational change, (3) technical expertise, (4) social interaction and quality, (5) faculty compensation and time, (6) threat of technology, (7) legal issues, (8) evaluation/effectiveness, (9) access, and (10) student‐support services.