Associations among a Set of Motivational Variables, Self-Management Behaviors and Glycemic Control in a Sample of African-Americans with Type 2 Diabetes


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The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine the associations among a set of motivational variables (readiness, importance, and self-efficacy), self-management behaviors (diet, exercise/physical activity) and glycemic control in a sample of adults with diabetes. Participants were 76 African-American adults with type 2 diabetes. The following information was collected via orally administered questionnaires: demographics, comorbidities and complications, self-management behaviors, readiness to change each self-management behavior, self-efficacy for each self-management behavior, importance of each self-management behavior. Participant's body mass index was measured and a blood sample was collected in order to assess hemoglobin A1C level (A1C). There was a unique effect of physical activity/exercise on A1C (Beta-weight = -.242, p=.04). The full set of motivational variables for each self-management behavior predicted level of glycemic control for diet (Chi-square = 13.83, p<.01), but not for physical activity/exercise or medication adherence. Readiness mediated the relationship between importance and diet behavior, and importance and medication adherence behavior. The results indicate that the motivational variables measured in this study are important and related to self-management behaviors. These motivational variables may be useful to assess in future self-management interventions in order to see how changes in these variables over time may lead to behavior change and self-management regimen adherence.