Measurement of Oxygen Concentrations in the Intact Beating Heart Using Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: A Technique for Measuring Oxygen Concentrations in Situ

Author/Creator ORCID




Beverly K. Fine School of the Sciences


Citation of Original Publication




Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy can be applied to measure oxygen concentrations in cells and tissues. Oxygen is paramagnetic, and thus it interacts with a free radical label resulting in a broadening of the observed linewidth. Recently we have developed instrumentation in order to enable the performance of EPR spectroscopy and EPR oximetry in the intact beating heart. This spectrometer consists of 1–2-GHz microwave bridge with the source locked to the resonant frequency of a specially designed lumped circuit resonator. This technique is applied to measure the kinetics of the uptake and clearance of different free radical labels. It is demonstrated that this technique can be used to noninvasively measure tissue oxygen concentration. In addition, rapid scan EPR measurements can be performed enabling gated millisecond measurements of oxygen concentrations to be performed over the cardiac cycle. Thus, low-frequency EPR spectroscopy offers great promise in the study of tissue oxygen concentrations and the role of oxygen in metabolic control.