NEV-NCD: Negative Learning, Entropy, and Variance regularization based novel action categories discovery





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This work was written as part of one of the author's official duties as an Employee of the United States Government and is therefore a work of the United States Government. In accordance with 17 U.S.C. 105, no copyright protection is available for such works under U.S. Law.
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Novel Categories Discovery (NCD) facilitates learning from a partially annotated label space and enables deep learning (DL) models to operate in an open-world setting by identifying and differentiating instances of novel classes based on the labeled data notions. One of the primary assumptions of NCD is that the novel label space is perfectly disjoint and can be equipartitioned, but it is rarely realized by most NCD approaches in practice. To better align with this assumption, we propose a novel single-stage joint optimization-based NCD method, Negative learning, Entropy, and Variance regularization NCD (NEV-NCD). We demonstrate the efficacy of NEV-NCD in previously unexplored NCD applications of video action recognition (VAR) with the public UCF101 dataset and a curated in-house partial action-space annotated multi-view video dataset. We perform a thorough ablation study by varying the composition of final joint loss and associated hyper-parameters. During our experiments with UCF101 and multi-view action dataset, NEV-NCD achieves ~ 83% classification accuracy in test instances of labeled data. NEV-NCD achieves ~ 70% clustering accuracy over unlabeled data outperforming both naive baselines (by ~ 40%) and state-of-the-art pseudo-labeling-based approaches (by ~ 3.5%) over both datasets. Further, we propose to incorporate optional view-invariant feature learning with the multiview dataset to identify novel categories from novel viewpoints. Our additional view-invariance constraint improves the discriminative accuracy for both known and unknown categories by ~ 10% for novel viewpoints.